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Table 4 Summary of findings

From: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials on the effectiveness of exercise programs on Lumbo Pelvic Pain among postnatal women

Author/Publication year Intervention Comparator Intervention duration and frequency Outcome measures Effectiveness of the intervention (P<05)
Mens et al., [46] 2000 Instructions given by videotape with training of the diagonal trunk muscles (n=16). Comparator 1: Instructions given by videotape with training of the longitudinal trunk muscles (n=14). 8-week duration. Intensity of pain and fatigue in the morning and evening based on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). No significant differences in pain intensity, fatigue, HQRL, or mobility measures between the experimental group and both control groups.
Light exercises to be performed 3 times per day and heavy exercises 3 times per week
Health-related quality of life (HQRL) based on Nottingham Health Profile (NHP).
  Comparator 2: Instructions given by videotape without exercises (n=14).   Gluteal pain provoked by the Posterior Pelvic Pain Provocation (PPPP) test on the left and right sides. Experimental group scored better than the control groups with repect to gluteal pain provoked by the PPPP test on the right side.
Mobility of pubic symphysis (radiographic examination).
Stuge et al., [47]a 2004 & Stuge et al., [51]a 2004 Physical therapy with specific stabilising exercises (n=40). Physical therapy without specific stabilising exercises (n=41). 18 to 20 weeks duration. Pain intensity in the morning and evening based on VAS. After the intervention and 1 year follow up:
Functional status (Oswestry LBP Disability Questionnaire). Health-related quality of life (SF-36 Health survey). Pain intensity in the morning and evening was significantly reduced in the intervention group. Functional status in the intervention group significantly better than the control group.
Physical endurance (Sӧrensen Test, ASLR test).
Health-related quality of life shows significant improvement in the intervention group with largest effect in physical function, role physical and bodily pain.
3 days a week with a daily duration of 30 to 60 min
Significant differences in functional status, evening pain, and morning pain between the groups were maintained 2 years after delivery.
Health-Related Quality of Life at 2 years after delivery revealed that significant differences persisted between the groups in physical functioning, role physical, and bodily pain.
      No significant differences between the 2 groups were seen for the other 5 subscales (general health, vitality, social functioning, role emotional, and mental health).
Gutke et al., [48] 2010 Specific stabilising exercises focused on the transversely Oriented abdominal, the lumbar multifidus, and the pelvic floor muscles. No exercise. Total duration not reported ≥ 2 times per day and to perform each exercise with 10 repetitions. Disability based on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) version 2.0. For ODI, no difference could be demonstrated between the intervention and control groups at 3- or 6-month follow-up. Significant difference in pain frequency was demonstrated between the two groups at the 3-month follow-up in favour of the intervention group.
Instructed to resume normal activities.
Pain intensity measured with VAS (0–100 mm) for current pain and average pain during the previous week.
Pain frequency (always, day and night to several times per week, or occasionally to never).
Health related quality of life (HRQL) measured using EuroQol instrument (EQ-5D and EQ-VAS).
No differences could be found between the groups regarding pain intensity,
     Wellbeing measured with VAS (0–100 mm) with defined end-points (low value indicating high wellbeing). HRQL or wellbeing.
Chaudry et al., [49] 2013 Core stabilisation exercises along with postural correction in different positions. Simple back strengthening exercises in different positions. Total duration not reported. Back pain (Visual analogue scale VAS). Significant improvement in ADLs and IADLs in intervention group compared to control group.
3 sessions of half an hour during the stay in hospital. Activities of Daily Livings (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Livings (IADLs)
Significant improvement in muscle power in intervention group compared to control group.
Mobility (dependent and independent).
Muscles power. Manual Muscle Testing (MMT).
     Pedal edema. Significant improvement in mobility in intervention group compared to control group.
Intervention group showed improvement in edema compared to control group, but p-value was insignificant.
  1. aBoth publications originated from the same trial