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Table 4 The association between SES and breastfeeding practices by immigration status

From: Variation in the association between socioeconomic status and breastfeeding practices by immigration status in Taiwan: a population based birth cohort study

Immigration status Ever breastfeeding Predominant breastfeeding continued to fourth month Predominant breastfeeding continued to sixth month
Socioeconomic status Rate OR (95 % CI) Rate OR (95 % CI) Rate OR (95 % CI)
Mothers from China (Yes = 774/No = 169) (Yes = 345/No = 598) (Yes = 172/No = 771)
Mother’s education          
 1. 13 years 85.05 0.98 (0.53–1.84) 34.58 0.99 (0.61–1.59) 17.76 1.06 (0.58–1.91)
 2. 10 to 12 years 83.38 1.01 (0.69–1.48) 40.85 1.38 (1.02–1.87)a 18.59 1.15 (0.79–1.68)
 3. 9 years 80.73 1.00   33.67 1.00   18.26 1.00  
Father’s education          
 1. 13 years 88.26 2.45 (1.46–4.10)c 40.15 1.44 (0.96–2.15) 18.18 1.40 (0.84–2.33)
 2. 10 to 12 years 82.79 1.59 (1.07–2.36)a 36.98 1.26 (0.89–1.78) 20.00 1.48 (0.96–2.29)
 3. 9 years 74.80 1.00   31.50 1.00   14.96 1.00  
Parental monthly income          
 1. NT$100,000 92.86 1.46 (0.32–6.79) 25.00 0.65 (0.25–1.70) 10.71 0.38 (0.08–1.71)
 2. NT$70,000 ~ NT$100,000 80.85 0.59 (0.25–1.39) 38.30 1.17 (0.59–2.32) 17.02 0.80 (0.34–1.89)
 3. NT$50,000 ~ NT$70,000 79.19 0.59 (0.34–1.01) 34.10 1.09 (0.70–1.69) 16.18 0.79 (0.46–1.36)
 4. NT$30,000 ~ NT$50,000 81.34 0.67 (0.43–1.05) 38.78 1.24 (0.89–1.75) 18.03 0.82 (0.55–1.24)
 5. NT$30,000 85.22 1.00   34.35 1.00   21.74 1.00  
Mothers from Southeast Asia (Yes = 1398/No = 414) (Yes = 451/No = 1361) (Yes = 194/No = 1618)
Mother’s education          
 1. 13 years 74.77 0.94 (0.56–1.57) 25.23 1.34 (0.79–2.26) 10.28 1.10 (0.52–2.33)
 2. 10 to 12 years 78.17 1.10 (0.84–1.43) 25.17 1.10 (0.85–1.43) 10.69 1.09 (0.76–1.56)
 3. 9 years 76.78 1.00   24.78 1.00   10.75 1.00  
Father’s education          
 1. 13 years 80.00 1.74 (1.14–2.66)a 25.26 1.13 (0.76–1.69) 13.16 1.62 (0.95–2.75)
 2. 10 to 12 years 80.60 1.60 (1.27–2.03)c 25.64 1.12 (0.89–1.42) 11.09 1.24 (0.89–1.72)
 3. 9 years 72.35 1.00   23.90 1.00   9.69 1.00  
Parental monthly income          
 1. NT$100,000 80.00 1.23 (0.33–4.54) 33.33 1.36 (0.43–4.29) 26.67 3.18 (0.90–11.31)
 2. NT$70,000 ~ NT$100,000 71.43 0.70 (0.33–1.43) 11.90 0.35 (0.13–0.94)a 7.14 0.61 (0.18–2.01)
 3. NT$50,000 ~ NT$70,000 69.01 0.64 (0.45–0.91)a 21.07 0.78 (0.54–1.13) 7.44 0.66 (0.38–1.15)
 4. NT$30,000 ~ NT$50,000 78.28 1.01 (0.78–1.30) 22.85 0.71 (0.56–0.89)b 9.50 0.68 (0.49–0.94)a
 5. NT$30,000 78.57 1.00   29.66 1.00   13.51 1.00  
Taiwanese mothers (Yes = 15067/No = 3114) (Yes = 2969/No = 15212) (Yes = 1286/No = 16895)
Mother’s education          
 1. 13 years 90.39 3.25 (2.78–3.82)c 21.10 2.75 (2.19–3.45)c 9.09 2.89 (2.07–4.03)c
 2. 10 to 12 years 76.58 1.52 (1.33–1.74)c 11.75 1.45 (1.21–1.86)c 5.16 1.61 (1.17–2.22)b
 3. 9 years 64.04 1.00   8.10 1.00   3.43 1.00  
Father’s education          
 1. 13 years 89.47 2.03 (1.76–2.34)c 21.06 1.63 (1.36–1.92)c 9.18 1.64 (1.26–2.12)c
 2. 10 to 12 years 78.08 1.36 (1.20–1.53)c 11.70 1.07 (0.90–1.27) 4.95 1.01 (0.79–1.30)
 3. 9 years 68.03 1.00   10.20 1.00   4.63 1.00  
Parental monthly income          
 1. NT$100,000 90.06 1.35 (1.10–1.66)a 21.80 1.39 (1.13–1.70)b 8.82 1.04 (0.78–1.38)
 2. NT$70,000 ~ NT$100,000 87.52 1.14 (0.96–1.35) 17.03 1.16 (0.96–1.41) 6.82 0.90 (0.69–1.78)
 3. NT$50,000 ~ NT$70,000 82.09 0.97 (0.84–1.13) 14.61 1.07 (0.89–1.28) 5.94 0.84 (0.65–1.07)
 4. NT$30,000 ~ NT$50,000 78.13 0.91 (0.79–1.05) 15.69 1.09 (0.91–1.29) 7.66 1.02 (0.81–1.84)
 5. NT$30,000 74.80 1.00   12.94 1.00   6.53 1.00  
  1. Note 1. a: p < .05, b: p < .01, c: p < .001
  2. Note 2. These models controlled for the residential area, employment status, age of the mother, age of the father, and sex of the child
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