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Table 2 Distribution of labor and delivery observations by facility, provider, and client characteristics

From: Direct observation of respectful maternity care in five countries: a cross-sectional study of health facilities in East and Southern Africa

Observation characteristics Ethiopia (N = 192) Kenya (N = 626) Zanzibar (N = 217) Rwanda (N = 293) Madagascar (N = 347) Tanzania (N = 489) Total (N = 2164)
Health facility type
 Hospital 100.0 % 85.8 % 85.3 % 82.3 % 81.0 % 39.9 % 75.4 %
 Health center/ dispensary 0.0 % 14.2 % 14.7 % 17.7 % 19.0 % 60.1 % 24.6 %
Provider cadre1
 Doctor 20.3 % 1.1 % 0.5 % 2.0 % 18.7 % 2.5 % 6.0 %
 Nurse/ midwife 71.4 % 97.3 % 94.0 % 88.7 % 74.4 % 86.5 % 87.4 %
 Student 4.7 % 0.0 % 0.5 % 4.4 % 6.1 % 2.0 % 2.5 %
 Unskilled 0.0 % 1.6 % 1.8 % 0.7 % 0.3 % 8.4 % 2.7 %
 Other/ missing 3.6 % 0.0 % 3.2 % 4.1 % 0.6 % 0.6 % 1.4 %
Provider gender2
 Male 44.3 % 16.7 % 0.5 % 10.9 % 12.1 % 5.0 % 13.5 %
 Female 55.7 % 83.3 % 99.5 % 89.1 % 87.9 % 95.0 % 86.5 %
Client gravidity3
 Primigravida    23.0 % 37.5 % 31.1 % 22.3 % 28.0 %
 Multigravida    77.0 % 62.5 % 68.9 % 77.7 % 72.0 %
  1. 1 Physician/resident includes: general practitioners, obstetricians, gynecologists, other specialists, residents; assistant medical officers in Tanzania and Zanzibar. Nurse/midwife includes: bachelor of science and diploma nurses, registered and enrolled nurses, bachelor of science and diploma midwives, registered and enrolled midwives, nurse/midwives; nursing officers and MCHA in Tanzania and Zanzibar; paramedics in Madagascar; health officers in Ethiopia. Student includes: medical and nursing students. Non-qualified staff includes: medical attendants, health assistants, and traditional birth attendants. Other/missing category in Kenya includes students
  2. 2 Gender missing for 43 observations.
  3. 3 Gravidity not collected in Ethiopia and Kenya, missing for 4 observations