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Table 2 Results by type of demand-side intervention

From: Demand-side interventions for maternal care: evidence of more use, not better outcomes

Community mobilization
  Maternal mortality ratio Stillbirth rate Perinatal mortality rate Neonatal mortality rate Antenatal care Facility-based delivery Skilled birth attendance
Fottrell NS NS NS ARR: 0.62 (0.43, 0.89) NS NS NS
Hounton NS -- OR: 0.75 (0.70, 0.80) -- -- 30 % increase --
Lewycka AOR: 0 · 51 (0 · 26–0 · 99) -- NS NS Any ANC at health facility AOR: 1.50 (1.03 to 2.19) NS NS
Manandhar AOR: 0.22 (0.05–0.90) NS -- AOR: 0.70 (0.53–0.94) Any ANC AOR: 2 · 82 (1.41–5.62) AOR: 3 · 55 (1 · 56–8 · 05) Doctor, nurse, or midwife AOR: 3 · 53 (1 · 54–8 · 10)
More -- NS NS AOR: 1.48 (1.06, 2.08) NS NS --
Mushi -- -- -- -- Early ANC booking increase from 18.7 to 56.9 %, p < 0.001 -- Increase in SBA from 34.1 to 51.4 %, p < 0.05
Persson -- -- -- NS AOR: 2.27 (1.07–4.80) NS --
Tripathy NS NS AOR: 0.79 (0.69, 0.91) AOR: 0 · 68 (0 · 59–0 · 78) NS NS NS
Financial incentives
  Maternal mortality ratio Stillbirth rate Perinatal mortality rate Neonatal mortality rate Antenatal care Facility-based delivery Skilled birth attendance
Bellows -- -- -- -- Any ANC visit: OR: 16.5 (4.0–68.1) OR: 1.4 (1.2–1.6) OR: 1.2 (1.1-1.4)
      4 + ANC visits: OR: 1.9 (1.6–2.4)   
De Allegri -- -- -- -- -- Increase from 49 to 84 % (p < 0.001) --
Gupta Increased (1985 to 2444 per 100,000 live births) -- -- -- -- 42.6 % increase in FBD --
Ir -- -- -- -- -- Increase in FBD from 16.3 to 44.9 % of the expected number of births (2.4 to 7 % for voucher recipients, 58.1 to 69.8 % for Health Equity Fund recipients) --
Lim NS -- −3.7 (−5.2, −2.2) −2.3 (−3.7, −0.9) 3 ANC visits: 10.7 % (9.1 to 12.3) 43.5 % (42.5 to 44.6) increase in FBD 36.6 % (35.6 to 37.7) increase in SBA
Nguyen -- -- -- -- Cross sectional difference 37.5 % in intervention vs. 18.7 % in comparison areas, p < 0.001 63.7 % in intervention vs. 27.1 % in comparison areas, p < 0.001
      Any ANC check-up: 91.6 % vs. 75.6 %, p < 0.001   
      ≥ 3 ANC check-ups 0.241   
      54.8 % vs. 33.6 %, p < 0.001   
      ≥1 ANC visit with qualified provider 79.2 % vs. 54.9 %, p < 0.001   
Randive NS -- -- -- -- Increase from 20 to 49 %, p < 0.05 --
Both
  Maternal mortality ratio Stillbirth rate Perinatal mortality rate Neonatal mortality rate Antenatal care Facility-based delivery Skilled birth attendance
Barber -- -- -- -- 12.2 % increase in number of recommended ANC procedures received -- --
  1. NS not significant (p-value > 0.05), ARR adjusted risk ratio, OR odds ratio, AOR adjusted odds ratio, MMR maternal mortality ratio, PMR perinatal mortality rate, NMR neonatal mortality rate, IMR infant mortality, ANC antenatal care, FBD facility-based delivery, SBA skilled birth attendance