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Table 1 Description of studies included in the review

From: Demand-side interventions for maternal care: evidence of more use, not better outcomes

Author Publication Year Country Setting Participants Study Design Eligibility Criteria Intervention Primary Outcomes
Community Mobilization
Fottrell 2013 Bangladesh Rural 19,301 births Cluster-RCT Women permanently residing in the study area who had a recorded birth or pregnancy related death in the final 24 months of the intervention Monthly peer-facilitated participatory action and learning groups where mothers discussed neonatal and maternal health problems and brainstormed ideas to address them NMR
Hounton 2009 Burkina Faso Rural Intervention: 43,612 women
Control: 52,126 women
Quasi-experimental Women aged 12–49 who had been pregnant during the survey reference period Community leaders led structured meetings with health professionals, religious leaders, and administrative officials to identify barriers to care and plan solutions Institutional births, NMR, MMR
Lewycka 2013 Malawi Rural 24 intervention and control clusters (Intervention: 27,361 women Control: 28,570 women) Cluster-RCT Women of childbearing age (10–49) that lived in the study area Trained facilitators led community based groups to identify maternal and child health problems and solutions MMR, PMR, NMR, IMR exclusive breastfeeding
Manandhar 2004 Nepal Rural Intervention clusters: 14,884 participants
Control clusters: 14,047 participants
Cluster-RCT Closed cohort of married women of reproductive age (15–49) who could become pregnant Trained, local facilitators led women’s groups to increase knowledge and implement action for change NMR
More 2012 Mumbai (India) Urban (slums) 24 Intervention & control settlements 283,000 total population 18,197 births Cluster-RCT Women of child bearing age in intervention settlement Series of 26 women's group sessions led by facilitator to increase knowledge develop an implement local strategies to address identified priority issues Perinatal care, MMR, extended perinatal mortality
Mushi 2010 Tanzania Rural 512 deliveries Pre-post All deliveries that occurred during the study period Safe motherhood promoters led community groups and conduct home visits with pregnant women Skilled birth attendance
Persson 2013 Vietnam Rural and urban Intervention: 44 communes
Control: 46 communes
Cluster-RCT Mother-newborn pairs in districts with NMR ≥ 15/1000 Local facilitators led monthly meetings with health workers, health center staff, and community members to prioritize perinatal health problems and solutions NMR
Tripathy 2010 India Rural 18 intervention and control cluster (18,775 total births) Cluster-RCT Women 15–49 years old who had given birth during the study period and were residing in project area Trained, local women facilitated monthly meetings using the participatory learning and action cycle to share information, identify maternal and newborn health problems, and collectively design, implement, and evaluate strategies to address these problems NMR, maternal depression scores
Financial Incentives
Bellows 2013 Kenya Urban (informal settlements) 4362 women Pre-post The 2005/06 data set included all females aged 12–54 years old who were registered in the longitudinal NUHDSS and had a live birth or stillbirth between January 2004 and December 2005. The second data set included all females aged 12–54 who had given birth in the last 6 months Eligible women could purchase vouchers that covered antenatal care, facility-based delivery, and postnatal care Delivery in a health facility
De Allegri 2012 Burkina Faso Rural 1934 women Pre-post Women residing in the 1050 households in Nouna Health District included in the representative sample Women who presented for a normal facility-based delivery received an 80 % subsidy, women who presented for complicated deliveries or C-sections charged proportionally higher rates Delivery in a health facility
Gupta 2012 India Rural and urban Pre: 3929 women
Post: 5604 women
Pre-post All women who delivered at the NSCB Medical College & Hospital of Jabalpur district between August 2003 and August 2007. All pregnant women were eligible to receive the JSY cash incentive if they chose to deliver in a facility Provided antenatal and postnatal services as well as a cash incentive for mothers after they delivered in a government or accredited private health facility Maternal mortality and maternal morbidity
Ir 2010 Cambodia Rural 2725 women Quasi-experimental Pregnant women who received vouchers and had a facility-based delivery in the three districts where the program was implemented Women received vouchers for antenatal visits, facility-based deliveries, and postnatal care as well as funds for transportation costs. Health Equity Fund schemes were also in place to promote access to health services for the poor Proportion of facility- based deliveries
Lim 2010 India Rural and urban 182,869 women Quasi-experimental Women 15–44 years old included in the DLHS survey Women received a financial incentive after delivering in a government or accredited private health facility Perinatal death, neonatal death, MMR
Nguyen 2012 Bangladesh Rural and urban 16 intervention & comparison sub-districts (1104 women in each) Quasi-experimental Women who had delivered 6 months prior to the survey Women received money for transport costs and vouchers for antenatal care, safe delivery care in a facility or at home, emergency care for obstetric complications, and postnatal care. After delivery with a qualified provider women also received a cash incentive and gift box ANC visits, institutional delivery, delivery attended by a qualified provider (facility or at home), incidence of C-section, incidence of PNC check-ups with a qualified provider
Randive 2013 India Rural and urban 284 districts (population 1.7 million) Pre-post Population-based national level surveys containing maternal mortality and birth data Women received a financial incentive after delivering in a government or accredited private health facility MMR, institutional births
Barber 2009 Mexico Rural Intervention: 712 births
Control: 180 births
RCT Women eligible for Oportunidades (low-income household in a marginalized community) who lived in the treatment or control communities, had a singleton live birth between 1997 and 2003, and who received and reported on ONC Households received a cash transfer if a woman attended educational programming and completed a prescribed prenatal care plan (% ANC visits and nutritional supplements) Overall quality of care score, quality scores within three domains (history taking and diagnostics, physical examination, and prevention)
  1. ANC antenatal care, PNC postnatal care, RCT randomized control trial, MMR maternal mortality ratio, PMR perinatal mortality rate, NMR neonatal mortality rate, IMR infant mortality rate