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Table 2 Determinants of use of postnatal care in rural Tanzania; results for multilevel logistic models

From: Determinants of postnatal care use at health facilities in rural Tanzania: multilevel analysis of a household survey

Variables   Unadjusted odds ratios Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
(N = 1931) (N =1889) (Individual variables) (N = 1909) (Community variables) (N = 1889) (Individual + Community variables)
   OR 95 % CI p value OR 95 % CI p value OR 95 % CI p value OR 95 % CI p value
Individual level
Age (in years) 15–19 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
20–34 1.13 0.80, 1.60 0.47 1.04 0.67, 1.62 0.86     1.14 0.64, 1.57 0.99
35–49 1.31 0.85, 2.01 0.20 1.18 0.68, 2.03 0.56     1.16 0.66, 1.96 0.64
Birth order First pregnancy 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
Second or higher 1.17 0.87, 1.59 0.30 1.13 0.76, 1.68 0.54     1.13 0.76, 1.68 0.54
Education Less than primary 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
Primary or higher 1.28 0.99, 1.65 0.06 1.38* 1.05, 1.82 0.03     1.37* 1.04, 1.81 0.03
Wealth quintile Lowest 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
Lower 0.86 0.58, 1.26 0.43 0.89 0.59, 1.33 0.55     0.86 0.57, 1.29 0.46
Middle 0.91 0.62, 1.32 0.61 0.89 0.60, 1.32 0.54     0.86 0.58, 1.28 0.45
Higher 0.96 0.65, 1.4 0.84 1.02 0.68, 1.53 0.93     0.96 0.64, 1.45 0.85
Highest 0.92 0.61, 1.37 0.67 0.86 0.56, 1.33 0.48     0.79 0.51, 1.23 0.28
Place of Delivery Home 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
Hospital 0.7 0.51, 1.06 0.10 0.52^ 0.35, 0.79 0.002     0.50^ 0.33, 0.76 0.001
Health Center 0.75 0.52, 1.09 0.13 0.64* 0.43, 0.95 0.03     0.57^ 0.38, 0.85 0.01
Dispensary 0.54^ 0.38, 0.77 0.01 0.49# 0.34, 0.72 <0.001     0.48# 0.33, 0.69 <0.001
Antenatal Care utilization No ANC visits 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
1–3 visits 2.15 0.73, 6.32 0.16 2.15 0.72, 6.45 0.17     2.37 0.79, 7.08 0.12
4+ visits 2.27 0.78, 6.61 0.13 2.50 0.84, 7.43 0.10     2.71 0.91, 8.06 0.07
Mode of delivery Normal delivery 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
Cesarean/forceps 2.6* 1.65, 4.07 <0.001 2.89# 1.76, 4.73 <0.001     2.95# 1.80, 4.81 <0.001
Seizures/unconscious antenatally No 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
Yes 2.18 0.93, 5.1 0.72 2.29 0.94, 5.57 0.07     2.33 0.95, 5.66 0.06
Severe antenatal swelling of face/legs No 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
Yes 0.71 0.49, 1.05 0.08 0.66* 0.44, 0.99 0.05     0.65* 0.43, 0.97 0.04
Complications during delivery No 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
Yes 1.51* 1.09, 2.09 0.01 1.31 0.89, 1.94 0.17     1.29 0.87, 1.91 0.2
Complications during Postnatal Period No 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
Yes 1.56* 1.09, 2.22 0.01 1.39 0.91, 2.11 0.13     1.33 0.88, 2.02 0.19
Report spending money on delivery care No 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
Yes 0.82 0.64, 1.05 0.12 0.77* 0.59, 1.00 0.05     0.78 0.60, 1.01 0.06
Counseled for PNC by CHW No 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
Yes 2.58^ 1.55, 4.29 <0.001 2.32^ 1.37, 3.93 0.002     2.3^ 1.36, 3.89 0.002
Received HIV testing for infant No 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
Yes 1.9^ 1.2, 3.02 0.01 1.93^ 1.19, 3.15 0.01     1.94^ 1.19, 3.15 0.01
Partner tested for HIV No 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref)
Yes 1.35* 1.05, 1.74 0.02 1.42* 1.08, 1.87 0.01     1.41^ 1.07, 1.86 0.01
Community level
Community usage of family planning Low 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Middle 1.54 0.8, 2.96 0.19     1.53 0.82, 2.86 0.18 1.57 0.83, 2.98 0.16
High 1.82 0.95, 3.5 0.07     2.21* 1.04, 4.69 0,04 2.48* 1.15, 5.37 0.02
Community coverage of 4 ANC visits Low 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Middle 0.77 0.4, 1.46 0.42     0.73 0.41, 1.31 0.30 0.70 0.38, 1.27 0.5
High 1.6 0.85, 3.02 0.15     1.22 0.66, 2.24 0.52 1.14 0.61, 2.14 0.68
Community level of poverty Low 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Middle 0.81 0.42, 1.55 0.52     0.89 0.51, 1.56 0.67 1.05 0.59, 1.88 0.89
High 1.39 0.72, 2.69 0.33     1.16 0.57, 2.38 0.70 1.45 0.68, 3.09 0.34
Community trust Low 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
High 1.44 0.83, 2.48 0.19     1.76* 1.12, 2.75 0.01 1.77* 1.12, 2.79 0.01
Community level of education Low 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Middle 1.0 0.52, 1.93 0.99     0.72 0.39, 1.33 0.29 0.68 0.36, 1.26 0.22
High 1.49 0.77, 2.89 0.23     1.27 0.66, 2.46 0.47 1.20 0.61, 2.36 0.60
Distance to nearest health facility Facility in village 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
0–5 KM 1.77 0.87, 3.59 0.11     1.08 0.59, 1.99 0.82 1.07 0.57, 1.99 0.86
5 or more KM 1.09 0.55, 2.15 0.81     1.39 0.76, 2.55 0.30 1.38 0.74, 2.57 0.32
Districts Morogoro DC 1.00 (ref)     1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Mvomero 0.50 0.22, 1.16 0.11     0.41* 0.20, 0.85 0.02 0.37* 0.17, 0.79 0.01
Kilosa 0.33^ 0.15, 0.71 0.01     0.31^ 0.15, 0.61 <0.001 0.27# 0.13, 0.56 <0.001
Ulanga 0.3^ 0.12, 0.72 0.01     0.16# 0.06, 0.39 <0.001 0.15# 0.06, 0.38 <0.001
Variance      0.48    0.96    0.47   
SE (variance)      0.1    0.12    0.1   
  1. *p < 0.05 ^p < 0.01 #p < 0.001