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Table 6 Bivariable analysis of the association between various factors and giving birth in health facility for the last delivery (Lalogi, n = 121)**

From: Losing women along the path to safe motherhood: why is there such a gap between women’s use of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance? A mixed methods study in northern Uganda

Factor Delivery in health facility p-value* Crude Odds Ratio
[95 % Confidence Interval]
Woman’s highest level of education n = 71 p = 0.92  
  No formal education 14/25 (56.0 %)   1
  Incomplete primary 47/81 (58.0)   1.09 [.44–2.70]
  Completed primary (or above) 10/16 (62.5)   1.31 [.36–4.82]
Husband’s highest level of education n = 71 p = 0.46  
  No formal education 6/9 (66.7)   2.09 [0.45–9.67]
  Incomplete primary 22/45 (48.9)   1
  Completed primary 20/32 (62.5)   1.74 [0.68–4.46]
  Some secondary (or above) 23/36 (63.9)   1.85 [0.74–4.61]
Age n = 71 p = 0.34  
  15–19 7/9 (77.8)   1.75 [0.31–10.02]
  20–24 24/36 (66.7)   1
  25–29 20/38 (52.6)   0.56 [0.21–1.45]
  30–34 12/26 (46.2)   0.43 [0.15–1.25]
  35–45 8/13 (61.5)   0.80 [0.21–3.03]
Ethnic group n = 71 p = 0.01  
  Acholi 44/64 (68.8)   2.53 [1.18–5.41]
  Langi 27/58 (46.6)   1
Religion n = 69 p = 0.54  
  Catholic 51/84 (60.7)   1
  Protestant 18/33 (54.6)   .78 [.34–1.76]
Gravidity n = 124 p = 0.02  
  2 20/28 (71.4)   1
  3–4 24/34 (70.6)   0.96 [0.32–2.92]
  5+ 27/59 (45.8)   0.34 [0.12–0.92]
Who decides where woman gives birth n = 71 p = 0.95  
  Self 21/34 (61.8)   1
  Husband/partner 23/41 (56.1)   .79 [.31–2.01]
  Self & husband/ partner together 20/34 (58.8)   .88 [.33–2.36]
  Other 7/13 (53.9)   .72 [.20–2.67]
Woman needs permission to attend health centre   p = 0.16 1.70 [.81–3.6]
  Yes 46/73 (63.0)   
  No 24/48 (50.0)   
Perceived ease of reaching nearest health facility offering delivery care n = 66 p = 0.27  
  Very difficult 13/21 (61.9)   1
  Difficult 36/54 (66.7)   1.23 [.43–3.53]
  Easy 13/28 (46.4)   .53 [.16–1.73]
  Very easy 4/5 (80.0)   2.46 [.22–28.12]
Distance to nearest health facility offering delivery care n = 59 p = 0.44  
  Less than 2 km 8/12 (66.7)   2.22 [0.47–10.50]
  2–<3 km 9/19 (47.4)   1
  3–5 km 23/34 (67.7)   2.32 [0.71–7.61]
  >5 km 19/35 (54.3)   1.32 [0.43–4.10]
Time it takes to reach this health facility (Lalogi) n = 71 p = 0.14  
  Under 1.5 h 16/29 (55.2)   1
  1.5–3 h 47/73 (64.4)   1.47 [0.61–3.55]
  >3 h 8/18 (44.4)   0.65 [0.20–2.16]
Time to reach nearest HF offering delivery services n = 63 p = 0.45  
  Under 1.5 h 18/35 (51.4)   1
  1.5–3 h 38/59 (64.4)   1.71 [.72–4.05]
  >3 h 7/11 (63.6)   1.65 [.40–6.83]
Average fee (UGX) from home to nearest HF offering delivery services n = 59 p = 0.79  
  0–1,000 11/18 (61.1)   1
  1,001–2000 16/22 (72.7)   1.70 [.44–6.62]
  2,001–3,000 16/23 (69.6)   1.46 [.39–5.45]
  3,001–5,000 10/18 (55.6)   .80 [.21–3.06]
  >5,000–15,000 6/10 (60.0)   .96 [.19–4.78]
Woman’s knowledge of danger or warning signs during labour & delivery n = 71 p = 0.63  
  0/none 23/38 (60.5)   1
  1 danger sign 26/47 (55.3)   0.81 [0.34–1.94]
  2 danger signs 6/13 (46.2)   0.56 [0.15–2.04]
  3 or more danger signs 16/24 (66.7)   1.30 [0.44–3.84]
Previous complications – ever experienced C-section, stillbirth, or fits (n = 71) p = 0.63  
  Yes 9/14 (64.3)   1.34 [.42–4.28]
  No 62/108 (57.4)   1
Whether woman received advice at ANC during last pregnancy to deliver at health facility n = 71 p = .005  
  Yes 59/89 (66.3)   3.28 [1.37–7.85]
  No 12/32 (37.5)   1
  1. * Derived from chi-square test
  2. ** While total number of women interviewed was 139, 18 respondents were missing data on advice, health facility delivery, or both, bringing the denominator to 121