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Table 1 Prevalence of maternal and neonatal characterstics in relation to birth position

From: Birth position and obstetric anal sphincter injury: a population-based study of 113 000 spontaneous births

Characteristics (%) Total Sitting Lithotomy Lateral Knee Birth seat Supine Squatting Standing All fours Unknown
Nulliparous women Number 44 942 17 294 11 906 5850 2660 4913 1214 342 243 235 285
%            
Maternal age >35 years 13 11 14 12 14 14 10 10 17 15 17
Head circumference >35 cm 55 53 58 54 53 57 51 47 53 61 53
Birthweight > 4000 g 11 10 14 10 10 11 10 10 12 14 12
Length of second stage >90 min 45 43 58 27 35 39 36 39 37 40 45
Gestational age >40 weeks 60 59 63 59 59 62 54 57 61 65 59
Induction 15 14 19 14 10 11 14 13 7 8 18
Epidural analgesia 57 57 68 53 43 51 50 56 42 53 55
Non-occiput anterior presentation 3 2 4 2 1 2 2 3 3 2 14
Oxytocin augmentation 61 60 79 52 43 50 50 54 40 51 58
Parous women Number 65 486 27 054 7410 12 631 7478 5025 3687 469 858 427 447
%            
Maternal age >35 years 35 32 36 36 41 40 31 34 45 41 35
Head circumference >35 cm 65 62 71 67 67 71 59 63 67 69 65
Birthweight > 4000 g 22 20 29 22 23 24 16 22 24 28 24
Length of second stage >90 min 7 5 16 5 4 7 3 9 7 8 6
Gestational age >40 weeks 57 55 61 57 59 61 52 57 59 61 56
Induction 14 14 21 14 9 9 15 11 10 11 33
Epidural analgesia 26 26 39 25 19 28 18 28 16 20 24
Non-occiput anterior presentation 4 3 7 4 2 4 3 4 2 3 20
Oxytocin augmentation 26 25 48 23 17 23 20 25 16 19 22
Women undergoing VBAC Number 2828 1054 864 387 149 225 77 21 18 16 17
%            
Maternal age >35 years 31 28 32 32 37 29 29 38 50 38 35
Head circumference >35 cm 63 62 67 62 68 61 54 57 71 75 53
Birthweight > 4000 g 18 19 18 18 18 17 12 19 22 50 0
Length of second stage >90 min 39 36 50 34 23 42 29 40 12 31 29
Gestational age >40 weeks 61 60 62 62 55 68 58 62 56 69 47
Induction 15 14 18 13 11 11 10 24 6 6 18
Epidural analgesia 62 60 71 58 53 59 56 67 33 69 47
Non-occiput anterior presentation 2 2 3 2 0 2 1 5 6 6 18
Oxytocin augmentation 58 55 71 49 41 51 48 57 28 63 53