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Table 4 Likelihood of having C-section by women’s background characteristics, women having given birth within three years prior to surveys in 1997, 2003 and 2011 Mozambique, crude likelihood and adjusted results by logistic regression, odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI)

From: Caesarean section rates in Mozambique

  Crude OR (95 % CI) Adjusted ORa (95 % CI) Adjusted ORb (95 % CI)
Years    
 1995–1997 1.00 1.00 --
 2001–2003 0.82 (0.62–1.10) 0.84 (0.63–1.13)
 2009–2011 1.95 (1.52–2.51) 1.98 (1.54–2.54) --
Place of residence    
 Rural 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Urban 4.93 (4.06–5.98) 4.58 (3.77–5.57) 4.45 (3.66–5.41)
Region    
 North 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Central 1.21 (0.91–1.62) 1.20 (0.90–1.61) 1.19 (0.89–1.58)
 South 3.41 (2.62–4.43) 3.02 (2.32–3.94) 3.08 (2.36–4.01)
Age    
 14–19 1.00 1.00 1.00
 20–25 0.80 (0.62–1.02) 1.28 (0.98–1.67) 1.28 (0.98–1.67)
 26–29 0.87 (0.65–1.15) 2.22 (1.58–3.11) 2.22 (1.58–3.11)
 30+ 0.80 (0.62–1.03) 2.85 (1.98–4.10) 2.77 (1.92–3.98)
Education    
 No education 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary 2.28 (1.77–2.93) 2.31 (1.79–2.98) 2.29 (1.78–2.96)
 Secondary+ 7.86 (5.95–10.4) 6.60 (4.93–8.85) 5.74 (4.26–7.74)
Parity    
 1 1.00 1.00 1.00
 2–3 0.53 (0.43–0.66) 0.39 (0.31–0.50) 0.39 (0.31–0.50)
 4+ 0.44 (0.35–0.54) 0.21 (0.15–0.29) 0.21 (0.15–0.29)
Wealth quintile    
 Poorest 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Poor 1.52 (0.88–2.64) 1.52 (0.88–2.63) 1.42 (0.82–2.47)
 Middle 1.93 (1.15–3.25) 1.95 (1.16–3.28) 1.86 (1.11–3.13)
 Richer 3.52 (2.19–5.68) 3.44 (2.13–5.54) 3.25 (2.01–5.24)
 Richest 11.81 (7.60–18.4) 10.34 (6.63–16.1) 9.80 (6.28–15.3)
Place of delivery c    
 Public health center 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Public hospital 4.43 (3.59–5.47) 4.22 (3.42–5.20) 4.41 (3.57–5.45)
 Other 2.86 (1.81–4.52) 2.77 (1.75–4.38) 2.53 (1.59–4.01)
  1. aAdjusted for maternal age and parity
  2. bAdjusted for maternal age, parity and year
  3. cPlace of delivery (excluding home births): “public health center”: 7 % of births occurred at a “public health post” in the 1997 survey, but none in the 2003 survey, and there was no “public health post” category in the 2011 survey; “other” includes private and non-specified health facilities