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Table 1 Background characteristics of women in the study, women having given birth within three years prior to the DHS surveys in 1997, 2003 and 2011, Mozambique, % of women

From: Caesarean section rates in Mozambique

  1997 (n = 3255) 2003 (n = 5414) 2011 (n = 6256) P value1, 1 st vs 2 nd period P value2, 2 nd vs 3 rd period
  % % %   
Type of residence      
 Urban 23.4 35.3 31.6 <0.01 <0.01
 Rural 76.6 64.7 68.4   
Age      
 14–19 19.1 19.2 18.5 0.44 0.23
 20–25 33.9 32.5 31.9   
 26–29 18.5 18.3 17.8   
 30+ 28.5 30.0 31.8   
Education      
 No education 39.0 40.6 33.5 <0.01 <0.01
 Primary 57.3 53.6 50.9   
 Secondary + 3.7 5.8 15.6   
Parity      
 1 23.4 21.7 21.7 0.12 0.66
 2–3 35.7 35.0 34.8   
 4+ 40.9 43.3 43.5   
Twin or multiple births      
 Yes 1.6 2.2 4.0 0.11 <0.01
 No 98.4 97.8 96.0   
Place of deliverya      
 Home 50.3 43.2 35.9 <0.01 <0.01
 Public health center 25.1 36.0 38.0   
 Public hospital 24.0 18.8 22.8   
 Other 0.7 2.0 3.3   
Living region      
 North 27.3 27.0 26.1 0.17 <0.01
 Central 38.9 40.8 43.8   
 South 33.8 32.2 30.1   
  1. aPlace of delivery: “public health center”: 7 % of births occurred at a public health post in the 1997 survey, but none in the 2003 survey, and there was no “public health post” category in the 2011 survey; “other” includes private and non-specified health facilities
  2. Information on the “place of delivery” was missing for 11 women in 1997, 5 women in 2003, and 86 women in 2011