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Table 5 Birth outcomes among GDM-nDnE, GDM-DnE and GDM-DE groups

From: Exercise intervention during pregnancy can be used to manage weight gain and improve pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

  Preterm birth Macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4000 g) Low birth weight (birth weight < 2500 g) Caesarean delivery
n (%) OR 95 % CI n (%) OR 95 % CI n (%) OR 95 % CI n (%) OR 95 % CI
GDM-DE 115(5.59) 1.00 Reference 196(9.53) 1.00 Reference 20(1.03) 1.00 Reference 1017(49.5) 1.00 Reference
GDM-DnE 12(5.91) 1.06 (0.58–1.96) 21(10.34) 1.10 (0.68–1.76) 6(3.14) 3.10 (1.23–7.81) 108(53.2) 1.16 (0.87–1.55)
GDM-nDnE 43(8.85) 1.64 (1.14–2.36) 56(11.52) 1.24 (0.90–1.69) 7(1.58) 1.49 (0.63–3.54) 235(48.4) 0.96 (0.79–1.17)
  1. Pregnant women in the GDM-DE group were used as the reference
  2. Abbreviations: OR odds ratios, CI confidence interval