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Table 4 The BMI increases among the GDM-nDnE, GDM-DnE and GDM-DE groups

From: Exercise intervention during pregnancy can be used to manage weight gain and improve pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

  GDM-nDnE N = 486 GDM-DnE N = 203 GDM-DE N = 2056
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 22.56(3.84) 22.45(3.31) 22.71(3.57)
Δ Mid-Pre BMI (kg/m2) 3.48(2.28)# 3.05(2.30)#& 3.59(1.92)&
Δ Late-Mid BMI (kg/m2) 2.50(1.31)#* 2.16(1.25)# 2.05(1.32)*
Δ Late-Pre BMI (kg/m2) 5.93(2.53)#* 5.18(2.55)#& 5.64(2.22)*&
  1. Data expressed as mean (Standard Deviation)
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, Δ Mid-Pre BMI BMI increase between mid and pre-pregnancy, Δ Late-Mid BMI BMI increase between late and med-pregnancy, Δ Late-Pre BMI BMI increase between late and pre-pregnancy
  3. #Indicates a significant difference between GDM-nDnE and GDM-DnE group; *Indicates a significant difference between GDM-nDnE and GDM-DE group; &Indicates a significant difference between GDM-DnE and GDM-DE group. *# &p values were based on Independent Samples T test, p <0.05