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Table 2 The BMI increases among the non-GDM, GDM-nE and GDM-E groups

From: Exercise intervention during pregnancy can be used to manage weight gain and improve pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

  Total sample Non-GDM GDM-nE GDM-E
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 21.62(3.29) 21.36(3.16)*# 22.53(3.69)* 22.71(3.57)#
Δ Mid-Pre BMI (kg/m2) 3.35(1.90) 3.30(1.87)*# 3.35(2.29)*& 3.59(1.92)#&
Δ Late-Mid BMI (kg/m2) 2.64(1.26) 2.77(1.21)*# 2.40(1.30)*& 2.05(1.32)#&
Δ Late-Pre BMI (kg/m2) 5.96(2.22) 6.04(2.19)**# 5.71(2.55)* 5.64(2.22)#
  1. Data expressed as mean (Standard Deviation)
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, Δ Mid-Pre BMI BMI increase between mid and pre-pregnancy, Δ Late-Mid BMI BMI increase between late and med-pregnancy, Δ Late-Pre BMI BMI increase between late and pre-pregnancy
  3. *Indicates a significant difference between Non-GDM group and GDM-nE group; #Indicates a significant difference between Non-GDM group and GDM-E group; &Indicates a significant difference between GDM-nE group and GDM-E group. *# & p values were based on Independent Samples T test, p <0.05