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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of pregnant women enrolled in this study

From: Exercise intervention during pregnancy can be used to manage weight gain and improve pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

  Total sample N = 14,168 Non-GDM N = 11,418 GDM-nE N = 689 GDM-E N = 2061
Age (years)* 28.12 ± 4.28 27.86 ± 4.21 28.70 ± 4.38 29.38 ± 4.40
Pre-pregnancy BMI* (kg/m2) 21.62 ± 3.29 21.36 ± 3.16 22.53 ± 3.69 22.71 ± 3.57
Exceeds recommended GWG 6303(48.0) 5092(48.3) 281(46.0) 930(47.3)
Family history of diabetes* 1969(13.9) 1392(12.2) 117(17.0) 460(22.3)
Physical labor during pregnancy*
 Light 10398(73.4) 8414(73.7) 530(76.9) 1454(70.5)
 Moderate 3561(25.1) 2830(24.8) 154(22.4) 577(28.0)
 High 75(1.2) 147(1.3) 4(0.6) 24(1.2)
  1. Continuous variables were expressed as means ± SD and categorical variables were expressed as n (%)
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), GWG gestational weight gain
  3. *Indicates a significant difference among Non-GDM, GDM-nE and GDM-E group, p <0.001