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Table 1 Item characteristics and exploratory factor analysis of the Demoralisation Scale

From: Early postnatal demoralisation among primiparous women in the community: measurement, prevalence and associated factors

Factor (% of total variance explained) Item mean (SD) Corrected item-total correlation Factor loadings
F1 F2 F3 F4
F1: Helplessness (35.4 %) (α = .83)       
 9. I feel hopeless. 0.4 (0.7) .64 .73    
 7. No one can help me. 0.4 (0.8) .52 .72    
 8. I feel that I cannot help myself. 0.4 (0.7) .62 .70    
 22. I feel discouraged about life. 0.3 (0.6) .68 .64    
 10. I feel guilty. 0.7 (1.0) .54 .58    
 21. I feel sad and miserable. 0.7 (0.8) .67 .51 .47   
F2: Disheartenment (7.2 %) (α = .79)       
 4. My role in life has been lost. 0.4 (0.7) .42   .76   
 24. I feel trapped by what is happening to me. 0.4 (0.8) .65   .68   
 23. I feel quite isolated or alone. 0.8 (1.0) .59   .58   
 5. I no longer feel emotionally in control. 0.7 (0.9) .54   .54   
 18. I feel distressed about what is happening to me. 0.5 (0.8) .65 .45 .51   
 6. I am in good spirits. 0.9 (0.7) .46   .43 .48  
F3: Sense of Failure (6.5 %) (α = .63)       
 19. I am a worthwhile person. 0.7 (0.8) .36    .73  
 17. I am proud of my accomplishments. 0.8 (0.7) .47    .67  
 1. There is a lot of value in what I can offer others. 1.5 (0.8) .27    .65  
 12. I cope fairly well with life. 0.8 (0.7) .49    .49  
F4: Dysphoria (5.0 %) (α = .71)       
 15. I tend to feel hurt easily. 1.1 (0.9) .39     .81
 16. I am angry about a lot of things. 0.6 (0.8) .55     .68
 11. I feel irritable. 1.3 (0.9) .48     .59
 13. I have a lot of regret about my life. 0.5 (0.8) .51     .53
Items excluded from factor analysis due to extreme kurtoses       
 2. My life seems to be pointless. 0.2 (0.6) .53     
 3. There is no purpose to the activities in my life. 0.2 (0.6) .40     
 14. Life in no longer worth living. 0.1 (0.3) .40     
 20. I would rather not be alive. 0.1 (0.3) .41     
  1. Only factor loading coefficients greater or equal to .40 are shown. Positively worded items (1, 6, 12, 17, 19) have been reverse scored