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Table 2 Prognostic factors for preference for elective caesarean section (CS) and delivery by elective CS among 1789 pregnant Norwegian women

From: Fear of childbirth and elective caesarean section: a population-based study

   Preference for elective CS Delivery by elective CS
Variables No. persons Cases (%) Adjusted OR Cases (%) Adjusted OR
(95 % CI) (95 % CI)
Fear of childbirth week 32 (W-DEQ)
 Low score (<85) 1655 130 (7.9) 1.0 73 (4.4) 1.0
 High score (≥85) 134 44 (32.8) 4.6 (2.9–7.3)*** 17 (12.7) 2.4 (1.2–4.9)*
Social support
 Strong 725 58 (8.0) 1.0 30 (4.1) 1.0
 Moderate 895 94 (10.5) 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 48 (5.4) 1.4 (0.8–2.4)
 Poor 169 22 (13.0) 1.0 (0.6–1.9) 12 (7.1) 2.0 (0.9–4.6)
Educational level (years)
 ≤ 12 554 72 (13.0) 1.0 35 (6.3) 1.0
 > 12 1235 102 (8.3) 0.6 (0.4–0.9)** 55 (4.5) 0.9 (0.5–1.5)
Maternal age (years)
 ≤ 25 177 20 (11.3) 1.0 7 (4.0) 1.0
 26–35 1269 116 (9.1) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 56 (4.4) 0.9 (0.4–2.2)
 ≥ 36 343 38 (11.1) 1.3 (0.7–2.5) 27 (7.9) 1.6 (0.6–4.4)
Sexual abuse
 No 1490 132 (8.9) 1.0 71 (4.8) 1.0
 Coerced 211 28 (13.3) 1.4 (0.9–2.3) 11 (5.2) 0.9 (0.4–1.9)
 Forced 88 14 (15.9) 1.0 (0.5–2.0) 8 (9.1) 0.7 (0.3–1.8)
Mental health
 No mental impairment 1585 136 (8.6) 1.0 75 (4.7) 1.0
 Anxiety or depression 131 24 (18.3) 1.7 (1.0–2.9)* 8 (6.1) 0.9 (0.4–2.2)
 Both anxiety and depression 73 14 (19.2) 1.1 (0.5–2.2) 7 (9.6) 0.9 (0.3–2.5)
Medical risk factors
 None 1422 107 (7.5) 1.0 21 (1.5) 1.0
 One 313 53 (16.9) 2.4 (1.6–3.5)*** 56 (17.9) 14.3 (8.3–24.8)***
 Two or more 54 14 (25.9) 4.3 (2.2–8.7)*** 13 (24.1) 21.6 (9.6–48.7)***
Previous overall birth experience
 Good 845 63 (7.5) 1.0 38 (4.5) 1.0
 Bad 72 26 (36.1) 4.1 (2.2–7.4)*** 23 (31.9) 8.1 (3.9–16.7)***
 No previous delivery experience 872 85 (9.7) 1.4 (0.9–2.0) 29 (3.3) 1.0 (0.6–1.7)
  1. The associations are estimated as adjusted odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals. All study factors are mutually adjusted in the logistic regression model. Marital status was also included in the logistic regression analyses, but not significantly associated with preference for elective caesarean section or delivery by elective caesarean section and therefore not included in the table. *Statistically significant at 0.05 level, ** at 0.01 level, *** at 0.001 level. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval