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Table 8 Multivariate logistic GLMMs assessing risk factors for observed incidences of disrespect and abuse among maternity patients whose care was observed as part of the Heshima project at baseline (2011) and endline (2014) in 13 facilities in Kenya, n = 1,200*

From: The effect of a multi-component intervention on disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Kenya

  During examination During Delivery Postpartum
  Non-consented carea Verbal abuseb Lack of privacyc Physical aggression Verbal aggression Lack of privacyd Shared bed
  AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI)
Group
 Baseline Refe Ref Refe Refe Ref Refe Refe
 Endline 3.29 (2.38 – 4.55) 0.78 (0.55 – 1.10) 0.24 (0.17 – 0.34) 0.12 (0.03 – 0.49) 0.71 (0.45 – 1.12) 0.31 (0.20 – 0.50) 1.57 (1.18 – 2.08)
Age (for each additional year) 0.99 (0.95 – 1.02) f 1.00 (0.96 – 1.04) 0.97 (0.94 – 1.01) 1.01 (0.91 – 1.11) 1.03 (0.98 – 1.09) 0.98 (0.93 – 1.03) 0.97 (0.94 – 1.01)
Parity
 0 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 1-2 0.88 (0.63 – 1.24) 1.15 (0.78 – 1.70) 0.91 (0.64 – 1.29) 0.89 (0.36 – 2.18) 0.65 (0.40 – 1.07) 0.89 (0.53 – 1.50) 1.14 (0.83 – 1.56)
 3+ 1.22 (0.67 – 2.23) 1.00 (0.49 – 2.02) 1.15 (0.61 – 2.16) 0.57 (0.09 – 3.57) 0.48 (0.18 – 1.27) 1.16 (0.51 – 2.65) 1.44 (0.81 – 2.58)
Time of delivery
 Day Reff Ref Refe Ref Ref Refe Ref
 Night 0.74 (0.53 – 1.02) 1.15 (0.81 – 1.64) 1.39 (1.01 – 1.92) 0.59 (0.23 – 1.50) 0.94 (0.60 – 1.49) 1.96 (1.21 – 3.18) 1.15 (0.87 – 1.52)
Facility sector
 Government Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Private/Faith based 0.27 (0.04 – 2.02) 0.69 (0.12 – 3.98) 1.60 (0.28 – 9.20) 1.10 (0.12 – 10.19) 1.02 (0.24 – 4.44) 0.34 (0.01 – 8.51) 0.36 (0.03 – 4.81)
Voucher status
 No vouchers Refe Ref Ref Reff Reff Ref Refe
 Vouchers 7.15 (1.08 – 47.34) 2.64 (0.52 – 13.31) 1.31 (0.13 – 13.03) 4.19 (0.81 – 21.74) 3.19 (0.91 – 11.19) 2.78 (0.15 – 53.26) 13.70 (1.32 – 141.96)
  1. *Missing values < 11 %
  2. aNot obtaining permission or consent before vaginal exam
  3. bUse of harsh tones, shouting, or non-dignified language
  4. cNo partitions or partitions not closed
  5. dNot covered while being moved from per-labor ward to delivery room; not covered (excluding perineal area) during delivery; partitions not closed
  6. eStatistically significant at p < 0.05
  7. fStatistically significant at p < 0.10