Skip to main content

Table 5 Multivariate logistic GLMMs assessing risk factors for disrespect and abuse among maternity patients participating in baseline (2012) and endline (2014) surveys of the Heshima project, Kenya. Model includes time of data collection (baseline)*

From: The effect of a multi-component intervention on disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Kenya

  Any Humiliation or Disrespect Physical Abuse Verbal Abuse Violation of Privacy Violation of Confidentiality Detainment Abandonment
  AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI)
Time Endline 0.55 (0.40 – 0.75)a 0.38(0.17 – 0.82)a 0.57 (0.41 – 0.79)a 0.66 (0.41 – 1.05)b 0.33 (0.16 – 0.71)a 0.09 (0.04 – 0.23)a 1.25 (0.90 – 1.75)
Baseline Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Age (for each additional year) 1.00 (0.96 – 1.03) 0.91 (0.84 – 0.99)a 1.00 (0.96 – 1.04) 1.03 (0.97 – 1.08) 1.03 (0.95 – 1.12) 1.00 (0.93 – 1.08) 1.01 (0.97 – 1.05)
Number previous births
 0 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref a Ref
 1-2 1.29 (0.89 – 1.88) 1.31 (0.59 – 2.90) 1.08 (0.73 – 1.61) 0.99 (0.57 – 1.74) 0.96 (0.41 – 2.27) 2.29 (1.02 – 5.14) 1.02 (0.69 – 1.51)
 3+ 1.03 (0.54 – 1.94) 2.28 (0.65 – 8.05) 1.31 (0.70 – 2.47) 0.85 (0.34 – 2.17) 0.64 (0.15 – 2.70) 3.51 (1.06 – 11.56) 1.02 (0.53 – 1.95)
Wealth
 Poorest 33.3 % Ref Ref a Ref Ref Ref Ref a Ref b
 Middle 33.3 % 1.33 (0.89 – 1.99) 2.12 (0.95 – 4.71) 1.20 (0.79 – 1.81) 1.66 (0.89 – 3.10) 2.05 (0.86 – 4.94) 0.45 (0.21 – 0.96) 1.61 (1.04 – 2.49)
 Richest 33.3 % 1.18 (0.76 – 1.83) 0.65 (0.22 – 1.88) 1.02 (0.64 – 1.61) 1.63 (0.82 – 3.23) 1.32 (0.48 – 3.63) 0.22 (0.08 – 0.60) 1.30 (0.80 – 2.09)
Time of Delivery
 Day Ref a Ref a Ref a Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Night 1.37 (1.02 – 1.85) 2.51 (1.17 – 5.39) 1.47 (1.07 – 2.01) 0.96 (0.62 – 1.51) 1.40 (0.71 – 2.76) 1.15 (0.62 – 2.12) 1.14 (0.84 – 1.56)
Marital Status
 Married/cohabitating Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref a Ref
 Not married 1.28 (0.86 – 1.88) 1.29 (0.58 – 2.90) 1.12 (0.74 – 1.69) 0.81 (0.43 – 1.54) 1.37 (0.59 – 3.23) 6.65 (3.27 – 13.51) 1.12 (0.73 – 1.70)
Facility Sector
 Government Ref a Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Private/FBO 0.37 (0.14 – 0.98) 1.07 (0.25 – 4.55) 0.47 (0.18 – 1.18) 0.58 (0.17 – 1.91) 0.79 (0.22 – 2.81) 0.23 (0.03 – 2.12) 0.52 (0.20 – 1.33)
Voucher Status
 No vouchers Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Voucher accredited facility 1.36 (0.63 – 2.95) 1.88 (0.58 - 6.07) 1.26 (0.59 – 2.68) 1.42 (0.54 – 3.71) 0.86 (0.38 – 1.94) 1.42 (0.44 – 4.58) 1.36 (0.61 – 3.00)
Main Service Provider
 Doctor/Other Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Nurse/Midwife 0.83 (0.60 – 1.13) 1.63 (0.77 – 3.47) 1.02 (0.73 – 1.43) 1.19 (0.73 – 1.94) 1.17 (0.56 – 2.45) 0.92 (0.48 – 1.77) 0.97 (0.70 – 1.35)
Referred to Facility
 No ** ** ** ** ** Ref a **
 Yes       4.31 (2.27 – 8.20)  
Physical abuse ever
No ** ** ** ** Ref a Ref a **
Yes      2.46 (1.19 – 5.06) 2.50 (1.30 – 4.82)  
  1. *Missing values < 3 %
  2. aStatistically significant at p < 0.05
  3. bStatistically significant at p < 0.10
  4. **Variable not included in the model