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Table 3 Socio-demographic and delivery characteristics of maternity patients participating in baseline (2012) and endline (2014) surveys of the Heshima project in 13 facilities in Kenya, N = 1,369*

From: The effect of a multi-component intervention on disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Kenya

  Baseline (N = 641) Endline (N = 728)  
  % (n) % (n) p-valuea
Socio-demographic characteristics
Age mean (SD) 25.0 (5.3) 25.2 (5.1) 0.473
Level of educational attainment    
 No school 1.3 (8) 1.7 (12) < .0001
 Primary 46.3 (296) 33.9 (244)  
 Secondary 42.6 (272) 47.9 (345)  
 Tertiary/University 9.9 (63) 16.5 (119)  
Marital status    
 Married/cohabitating 81.9 (525) 80.4 (585) 0.466
 Not married 18.1 (116) 19.6 (143)  
Religion    
 Muslim 1.3 (8) 2.6 (19)  
 Catholic 25.8 (165) 26.2 (191) 0.309
 Protestant 70.8 (453) 69.4 (505)  
 Others/None 2.2 (14) 1.8 (13)  
Wealth quintile    
 Poorest 33.3 % 44.0 (282) 23.9 (174)  
 Middle 33.3 % 31.5 (202) 35.0 (255) < .0001
 Richest 33.3 % 24.5 (157) 41.1 (299)  
Previous births    
 0 41.6 (266) 41.2 (300)  
 1-2 45.3 (290) 47.0 (342) 0.710
 3+ 13.1 (84) 11.8 (86)  
Reported ever being physically abused 18.7 (120) 38.1 (277) < .0001
Reported ever having been raped 2.2 (14) 4.8 (35) 0.009
Delivery Characteristics
Facility sector    
 Government/Council 91.0 (583) 88.1 (641) 0.082
 Private/Faith based 9.1 (58) 12.0 (87)  
Voucher accredited facility 65.4 (419) 74.7 (544) 0.0002
Previous delivery at facility 25.7 (165) 27.2 (198) 0.542
Referred to facility 22.5 (144) 17.7 (129) 0.028
Time of delivery    
 Day 57.4 (368) 53.2 (387) 0.115
 Night 42.6 (273) 46.8 (341)  
Accompanied to facility 99.7 (639) 88.5 (644) < .0001
Primary service provider for delivery    
 Nurse/midwife 64.5 (404) 65.4 (474)  
 Other 35.5 (222) 34.6 (251) 0.746
  1. *Missing values < 5%
  2. aChi-square test of association