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Table 3 Associations between mothers' alcohol consumption and foetal health outcomes in Northern Tanzania 2000–2010

From: Alcohol consumption among pregnant women in Northern Tanzania 2000–2010: a registry-based study

  % of births % (n) of births with outcome Univariate analysis Multivariable model(a)
Variables RR (95 % CI) p-value ARR (95 % CI) p-value
Perinatal death (n = 33971)(b)
 Drinks alcohol 34.1 5.2 (606) 0.83 (0.76 – 0.91) < 0.001 0.93 (0.81 – 1.07) 0.288
 Drinks alcohol every day 1.0 3.3 (11) 0.53 (0.30 – 0.95) 0.032 0.40 (0.17 – 0.96) 0.041
 Drinks alcohol more than once a week 10.1 4.6 (157) 0.72 (0.62 – 0.85) <0.001 0.81 (0.64 – 1.01) 0.064
 Drinks alcohol once a week 3.8 5.1 (66) 0.80 (0.63 – 1.02) 0.073 1.05 (0.77 – 1.44) 0.743
 Drinks occasionally 19.2 5.7 (372) 0.90 (0.81 – 1.01) 0.071 0.99 (0.85 – 1.16) 0.930
 Abstains from alcohol 65.9 6.3 (1414) 1.00   1.00  
Small for gestational age (below 10th percentile related to gestational age and sex(d)) (n = 27065)(c)
 Drinks alcohol 34.4 14.0 (1305) 0.81 (0.76 – 0.86) < 0.001 0.87 (0.80 – 0.94) 0.001
 Drinks alcohol every day 1.0 13.8 (36) 0.80 (0.59 – 1.08) 0.142 0.81 (0.54 – 1.22) 0.316
 Drinks alcohol more than once a week 10.0 13.5 (367) 0.78 (0.71 – 0.86) < 0.001 0.88 (0.77 – 1.00) 0.052
 Drinks alcohol once a week 4.0 14.2 (153) 0.82 (0.70 – 0.95) 0.009 0.80 (0.65 – 0.98) 0.034
 Drinks occasionally 19.4 14.3 (749) 0.82 (0.77 – 0.89) < 0.001 0.88 (0.79 – 0.97) 0.007
 Abstains from alcohol 65.6 17.3 (3079) 1.00   1.00  
Low gestational age < 37 weeks (n = 29399)(c)
 Drinks alcohol 34.4 10.5 (1062) 0.85 (0.79 – 0.91) < 0.001 0.89 (0.81 – 0.99) 0.024
 Drinks alcohol every day 1.0 11.7 (33) 0.95 (0.69 – 1.31) 0.735 0.93 (0.61 – 1.41) 0.723
 Drinks alcohol more than once a week 10.1 10.1 (301) 0.82 (0.73 – 0.92) < 0.001 0.90 (0.77 – 1.05) 0.170
 Drinks alcohol once a week 4.0 10.5 (123) 0.85 (0.71 – 1.00) 0.055 0.91 (0.72 – 1.15) 0.450
 Drinks occasionally 19.4 10.6 (605) 0.86 (0.79 – 0.93) < 0.001 0.88 (0.78 – 1.00) 0.043
 Abstains from alcohol 65.6 12.4 (2394) 1.00   1.00  
Low Apgar score 5 min after birth (Apgar score < 7) (n = 32363)(b)
 Drinks alcohol 34.2 2.7 (304) 0.87 (0.76 – 0.99) 0.039 1.12 (0.92 – 1.36) 0.249
 Drinks alcohol every day 1.0 2.2 (7) 0.70 (0.34 – 1.47) 0.348 0.48 (0.12 – 1.94) 0.300
 Drinks alcohol more than once a week 10.2 2.6 (85) 0.82 (0.65 – 1.02) 0.076 1.28 (0.95 – 1.73) 0.104
 Drinks alcohol once a week 3.8 2.3 (29) 0.74 (0.51 – 1.06) 0.103 1.23 (0.78 – 1.95) 0.371
 Drinks occasionally 19.2 2.9 (183) 0.93 (0.79 – 1.09) 0.384 1.10 (0.88 – 1.38) 0.386
 Abstains from alcohol 65.8 3.2 (673) 1.00   1.00  
  1. (a)In the multivariable analyses the associations with alcohol have for all the outcomes been adjusted for the following predictors: mother's age, mother's occupation, mother's tribe, mother's religion, mother's body mass index, mother's height, previous pregnancies, mother's current residence, mother's childhood residence, father's age, father's tribe, year of delivery, drinking water source, boiling of drinking water, mother's age at marriage and mother's HIV-status
  2. (b)Analyses of perinatal death and low Apgar score 5 min after birth includes all births including twins and triplets. Low Apgar score does not include stillbirths
  3. (c)Analyses of small for gestational age and low gestational age include singleton births only
  4. (d)Limits for 10th percentile related to gestational age and sex are based on Villar et al., 2014