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Table 2 Results of quantitative studies

From: Exploring the intangible economic costs of stillbirth

Lead author (year) Selected results Author’s conclusion
Radestad (2001) [36] Mean anxiety score: cases; 36.4, controls; 34.8 Slightly higher anxiety level in women with stillbirth compared to those without stillbirth
Turton (2006) [9] Within-couple analysis (negative scores indicate higher levels in mothers), PTSD(−6.63), State anxiety (−4.42), Trait anxiety (−1.41) Among couples with stillbirth, mothers had higher level of PTSD and anxiety than fathers
Compared to parents without stillbirth, parents with stillbirth had significant levels of depression, anxiety and PTSD
Saflund (2006) [41] WB: Women/ Men, Higher NWB (p = ≤ 0.0001) Lower PWB (p = ≤ 0.010) Lower GWB (p = ≤ 0.001) At 3 months post stillbirth; mothers scored significantly higher on NWB and lower on PWB and GWB than fathers
None of the fathers was on sick leave whereas all mothers were on full or part-time leave
Surkan (2008) [37] Relative risk of depressive symptoms, Not held baby long enough (RR 6.9, 95 % CI 2.4–19.8), Not pregnant within 6 months (RR 2.8. 95 % CI 0.9–8.4) Depression in mothers post stillbirth is influenced by the length of time they spent with their stillborn and if pregnant again within 6 months
Turton (2009) [38] No significant association No evidence to suggest that siblings born after a stillbirth are clinically at risk for psychological problems
Cacciatore (2013) [11] Anxiety, 41.3 %, mental distress, 42.3 %, depressive symptoms, 61.7 % Scores elevated among mothers that blamed themselves for a stillbirth