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Table 4 Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of SBA use for births (weighted n = 6748 in Tanzania), Tanzania DHS 2010

From: The relationship of women’s status and empowerment with skilled birth attendant use in Senegal and Tanzania

Variables Model 1 unadjusted (bivariate) Model 2 adjusted Model 3 final adjusted
OR p CI OR p CI OR p CI
Independent variable (Ref.=Primary edu)          
 Highest education No education 0.457 <.001 0.386 0.542 0.667 <.001 0.546 0.814 0.702 <.001 0.574 0.858
  Secondary or above 5.564 <.001 4.088 7.573 1.515 0.009 1.111 2.066 1.428 0.024 1.047 1.946
Control variables           
 Age at childbirth   0.986 0.007 0.976 0.996 1.049 <.001 1.032 1.067 1.040 <.001 1.021 1.060
 Household wealth (Ref.=Poorest)          
  Poorer 1.160 0.155 0.942 1.451 1.024 0.835 0.816 1.286 1.013 0.914 0.805 1.274
Middle 1.844 <.001 1.487 2.286 1.531 <.001 1.217 1.925 1.528 <.001 1.214 1.923
Richer 3.612 <.001 2.862 4.557 2.140 <.001 1.659 2.759 2.170 <.001 1.680 2.803
Richest 21.612 <.001 15.681 29.787 6.72 <.001 4.033 9.141 5.836 <.001 3.895 8.744
 Parity (Ref.=4th or more)          
  First birth 2.757 <.001 2.315 3.283 3.134 <.001 2.297 4.274 2.936 <.001 2.120 4.066
Second or third 1.731 <.001 1.502 1.996 1.901 <.001 1.537 2.350 1.778 <.001 1.422 2.223
 Employment (Ref.= not employed) 2.163 <.001 1.867 2.506 1.230 0.017 1.038 1.457 1.197 0.039 1.009 1.420
 Household head (Ref.= not head) 0.836 0.235 0.622 1.124 1.196 0.313 0.845 1.693 1.114 0.545 0.785 1.583
 Urban residence (Ref.=Rural) 7.305 <.001 5.617 9.499 2.182 <.001 1.582 3.011 2.183 <.001 1.589 2.999
 Marital relationship (Ref.=monogamous)          
  Polygamous as 1st wife 0.401 <.001 0.314 0.513 0.541 <.001 0.414 0.707 0.566 <.001 0.433 0.739
2nd or lower 0.560 <.001 0.449 0.699 0.639 <.001 0.494 0.827 0.672 0.003 0.519 0.870
 Having son(s) (Ref.=No living son) 0.550 <.001 0.482 0.627 0.849 0.098 0.699 1.031 0.852 0.105 0.701 1.034
 Perceived difficulty in accessing health care 0.607 <.001 0.561 0.657 0.732 <.001 0.672 0.798 0.739 <.001 0.678 0.805
  (scored 0–4)          
Women’s empowerment proxy measures          
Household decision-making power (0–3) 1.208 <.001 1.140 1.280     1.129 <.001 1.056 1.206
Perceptions against violence (0–5) 1.112 <.001 1.072 1.153     1.018 0.421 0.975 1.062
Perceptions for sex negotiation (0–2) 1.376 <.001 1.256 1.507     1.108 0.053 0.999 1.230
Age at first marriage 1.102 <.001 1.075 1.130     1.022 0.120 0.994 1.050
Intercept (coefficient)   −1.983 <.001    −2.477 <.001   
Model statistics   
 LR (Chi-square) 1635.0332 1683.3702
 Wald (Chi-square) 751.1497 755.8300
 DF 16 20
 p <.001 <.001
  1. Model 1 (simple binary regression model) was assessed by each explanatory variable, and the model statistics of each model are not reported in the table. For the overall association, wald chi-square tests (from Type 3 Analysis of Effects) were assessed with education, wealth, parity, and marital relationship, showing significance at p < .001