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Table 3 Odds ratiosa of pregnancy complications in relation to group (symptom-free (SF), nausea only (NP), and nausea and vomiting (NVP))

From: Pregnancy complications and birth outcomes among women experiencing nausea only or nausea and vomiting during pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

  Crude Adjustedd
Outcome Group n (%)b cOR (95 % CI)c P value aOR (95 % CI) P value
Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) SF 1101 (9.2) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 <0.001
  NP 2919 (17.3) 2.06 (1.92–2.22) 1.90 (1.76–2.05)
  NVP 2845 (20.3) 2.51 (2.33–2.71) 2.26 (2.09–2.43)
Severe pelvic girdle paine       <0.001
Smokers SF 30 (3.0) 1.00   1.00
  NP 32 (3.9) 1.33 (0.80–2.21)   1.16 (0.69–1.94)
  NVP 50 (7.1) 2.50 (1.57–3.98) <0.001 2.20 (1.36–3.56)
Non-smokers SF 105 (1.0) 1.00   1.00
  NP 390 (2.9) 2.79 (2.24–3.46) 2.36 (1.90–2.94)
  NVP 483 (4.4) 4.32 (3.50–5.33) 3.50 (2.82–4.34)
Proteinuria SF 937 (6.8) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 <0.001
  NP 1616 (8.1) 1.22 (1.12–1.32) 1.20 (1.10–1.31)
  NVP 1716 (10.4) 1.59 (1.46–1.73) 1.50 (1.38–1.63)
High blood pressure- no prior history SF 209 (1.8) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 <0.001
  NP 318 (1.9) 1.06 (0.89–1.27) 1.07 (0.89–1.28)
  NVP 361 (2.6) 1.49 (1.25–1.76) 1.40 (1.17–1.67)
Preeclampsia SF 544 (3.9) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 0.004
  NP 657 (3.3) 0.83 (0.74–0.94) 0.94 (0.84–1.06)
  NVP 735 (4.4) 1.13 (1.01–1.27) 1.13 (1.01–1.27)
Gestational diabetes- no prior history SF 111 (0.8) 1.00 0.08 1.00 0.09
  NP 123 (0.6) 0.77 (0.59–0.99) 0.76 (0.58–0.98)
  NVP 129 (0.8) 0.97 (0.75–1.25) 0.93 (0.71–1.20)
  1. aOR, odds ratio, logistic regression analysis
  2. bNumber (%) of women with outcome
  3. cCI, confidence interval
  4. dAdjusted for age, body mass index, smoking during pregnancy, parity, education, and gender
  5. eSignificant interaction between severe PGP and smoking status during pregnancy (P = 0.04)