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Table 4 Pattern of insomnia and short sleep duration (at T1 and T2) as risk factors for insomnia and short sleep duration at year 2 postpartum (T3)

From: Trajectories of maternal sleep problems before and after childbirth: a longitudinal population-based study

   Insomnia at year 2 postpartum (T3). Short sleep duration (<7 h) at year 2 postpartum (T3)
   Unadjusted model Adjusted model# Unadjusted model Adjusted model#
  % (N) RR 95 % CI RR 95 % CI RR 95 % CI RR 95 % CI
Insomnia pattern          
No insomnia 20.8 % (407) 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
Insomnia T1 only 19.0 % (372) 2.21 1.60–3.06 2.06 1.40–3.03 1.12 0.86–1.45 0.90 0.65–1.23
Insomnia T2 only 19.4 % (380) 1.92 1.38–2.67 2.00 1.36–2.95 1.12 0.87–1.45 1.01 0.75–1.35
Chronic insomnia 40.7 % (796) 3.58 2.70–4.76 3.31 2.34–4.68 1.45 1.17–1.79 1.20 0.92–1.55
Pattern of short sleep duration*        
Normal/long sleep 43.3 % (700) 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
Short sleep T1 only 31.3 % (506) 1.39 1.15–1.68 1.37 1.10–1.71 1.35 1.08–1.70 1.29 1.00–1.68
Short sleep T2 only 8.4 % (136) 1.42 1.10–1.83 1.48 1.10–1.99 1.66 1.24–2.20 1.76 1.30–2.40
Chronic short sleep 16.9 % (273) 1.56 1.26–1.92 1.40 1.08–1.82 2.21 1.78–2.74 2.05 1.58–2.67
  1. *Short sleep duration defined as < 7 h
  2. #Adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status, parity, BMI (week 17 and 32), chronic hypertension, diabetes, and depressive symptoms (all three time periods)