Skip to main content

Table 2 Sleep characteristics of included participants at the three time points, week 32 of pregnancy, and week 8 and year 2 postpartum

From: Trajectories of maternal sleep problems before and after childbirth: a longitudinal population-based study

  Week 32 of pregnancy (Time 1) Week 8 postpartum (Time 2) Year 2 postpartum (Time 3) Time 1 vs Time 2 Time 2 vs Time 3 Time 1 vs Time 3
  Mean/% (SD/n) Mean/% (SD/n) Mean/% (SD/n) p-level* Cohen’s d p-level Cohen’s d p-level Cohen’s d
Sleep duration variables             
Time in bed, hh:mm 8:42 (1:16) 8:51 (1:22) 7:44 (0:51) .010 0.11 <.001 0.98 <.001 0.90
Sleep duration, hh:mm 7:16 (1:23) 6:31 (1:16) 6:52 (0:58) <.001 0.57 <.001 0.31 <.001 0.34
<7 h, % (n) 27.4 % (742) 49.8 % (958) 35.2 % (680)   -   -   -
7-8 h, % (n) 31.4 % (852) 29.8 % (573) 45.1 % (871)   -   -   -
≥8 h, % (n) 41.2 % (1117) 20.4 % (393) 19.7 % (381)   -   -   -
SOL/WASO, hh:mm 1:28 (1:18) 2:21 (1:21) 0:52 (0:53) <.001 0.67 <.001 1.30 <.001 0.54
Sleep efficiency, % 83.6 % (13.3) 74.2 % (13.2) 89.0 % (10.5) <.001 0.71 <.001 1.24 <.001 0.45
Insomnia variables             
DSM-IV Insomnia, % (n) 60.8 % (1778) 59.6 % (1305) 40.8 % (835) 1.00 - <.001 - <.001 -
Difficulties initiating sleep, days/week 2.69 (2.38) 1.45 (2.00) 1.61 (1.97) <.001 0.56 0.42 0.08 <.001 0.49
Difficulties maintaining sleep, days/week 2.93 (2.36) 4.24 (2.76) 1.66 (2.12) <.001 0.51 <.001 1.05 <.001 0.57
Early morning awakenings, days/week 2.27 (2.27) 1.25 (2.06) 1.16 (1.81) <.001 0.47 0.62 0.05 <.001 0.54
Non-restorative sleep, days/week 3.56 (2.16) 3.70 (2.31) 3.55 (2.30) 0.17 0.06 0.16 0.07 1.00 0.00
Daytime impairment, days/week 2.28 (2.20) 1.76 (2.00) 1.83 (2.00) <.001 0.25 0.66 0.03 <.001 0.21
Sleep dissatisfaction, days/week 3.50 (2.30) 2.98 (2.35) 2.91 (2.32) <.001 0.22 1.00 0.03 <.001 0.26
  1. *P-value (< .05) based on Bonferroni Post hoc tests from Repeated-Measures ANOVA