Skip to main content

Table 2 Comparison of selected characteristics between women who did not deliver at health facilities and those who did

From: A community-based assessment of correlates of facility delivery among HIV-infected women in western Kenya

Characteristic HIV-infected (n = 216) P value HIV-uninfected (n = 318) P value
Non-facility (n = 115) Facility (n = 101) Non-facility (n = 191) Facility n = 127)
N (%) or mean (95% CI) N (%) or mean (95% CI)
Social demographics       
Age (years) (n = @215) 29.1 (28.1–30.1) 28.6 (27.5–29.6) 0.444 26.6 (25.7–27.5) 25.6 (24.6–26.7) 0.158
Duration of resident in area(n = @214; ^=316) 10.5 (9.3- 11.6) 9.6 (8.4–10.8) 0.294 9.0 (8.2- 9.9) 7.9 (6.8–9.0) 0.107
Married (n = @214) 101 (87.8) 93 (92.1) 0.302 182 (95.3) 117 (92.1) 0.244
Employed (n = ^317) 39 (33.9) 38 (38.4) 0.497 77 (40.3) 64 (50.8)) 0.066
≥ Primary education (n = ^317) 52 (45.2) 60 (59.4) 0.037 81 (42.4) 71 (56.4) 0.015
Economic       
Income ≥ US $ 25 (n = @82; ^150) 10 (23.8) 23 (57.5) 0.002 28 (32.6) 31 (48.4) 0.049
Own mobile phone (n = ^317) 71 (61.7) 81 (80.2) 0.003 125 (65.5) 109 (86.5) <0.005
Own radio 71 (61.7) 69 (68.3) 0.312 131 (68.6) 105 (82.7) 0.005
Own bicycle 64 (55.7) 65 (64.4) 0.193 110 (57.6) 85 (66.9) 0.094
Obstetric       
Number of pregnancies 4.7 (4.4–5.1) 4.3 (3.9–4.7) 0.079 4.6 (4.3–4.9) 3.8 (3.4–4.2) 0.002
Parity < 5 55 (47.8) 62 (61.4) 0.046 109 (57.1) 88 (69.3) 0.028
Prior pregnancy loss (n = ^317) 18 (15.7) 12 (11.9) 0.424 21 (11.1) 12 (9.5) 0.647
ANC attendance 109 (94.8) 100 (99.0) 0.080 175 (91.6) 126 (99.2) 0.003
Gestation at 1st ANC visit# (n = @205) 5.4 (5.2–5.7) 4.9 (4.6–5.2) 0.016 5.3 (5.1–5.6) 5.1 (4.9–5.4) 0.246
Very satisfied with care (n = @204; ^315) 58 (55.8) 77 (77.0) 0.001 116 (61.4) 94 (74.6) 0.031
Know HIV positive status       
Before pregnancy 44 (38.3) 46 (45.5) 0.279 - -  
During pregnancy 71 (61.7) 55 (54.5)   - -  
Known partner HIV status 60 (52.2) 69 (68.3) 0.016 99 (51.8) 79 (62.2) 0.068
Partner HIV-infected (n = @129; ^178) 43 (71.7) 49 (71.0) 0.935 6 (6.1) 4 (5.1) 0.774
Use of maternal ARVs (n = @207) 89 (77.4) 88 (87.1) 0.063 - -  
Use of infant ARVs (n = @178) 83 (94.3) 88 (97.8) 0.275 - -  
HIV stigma measures*       
Shame 41 (35.7) 33 (32.7) 0.645 82 (42.9) 60 (47.2) 0.449
Blame or judgment 102 (88.7) 83 (82.2) 0.173 173 (90.6) 111 (87.4) 0.370
Enacted stigma or discrimination 35 (87.5) 25 (83.3) 0.622 37 (84.1) 20 (76.9) 0.456
  1. N = 216 among HIV infected (@ if different) and 318 among HIV-uninfected women (^ if different).
  2. # Gestation in months.
  3. *Woman agrees with at least one HIV related shame, blame or judgment, or enacted stigma or discrimination indicator.