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Table 2 Hazard ratio of developing T2D in patients with GDM according to previous history of GDM, family history of diabetes, deprivation category; insulin use and average weekly weight gain during pregnancy; and weight, age, trimester, HbA1c, fasting and 2 hour blood glucose at diagnosis of GDM

From: Progression from gestational diabetes to type 2 diabetes in one region of Scotland: an observational follow-up study

  Univariate Multivariate
No. (%) progressing to T2D Mean time to progress (months) Hazard ratio (95% CI) p value Hazard ratio (95% CI) p value
Whole sample (n=164) 41 (25) 93     
Deprivation category (no. in each group)
5 least deprived (17) 2 (12) 21 1.00   1.00  
4 (39) 8 (21) 78 1.44 (0.31-6.76) 0.647 0.68 (0.12-3.95) 0.671
3 (21) 6 (29) 94 1.86 (0.38-9.20) 0.448 0.71 (0.11-4.61) 0.717
2 (35) 13 (37) 115 2.81 (0.63-12.45) 0.174 1.92 (0.37-10) 0.438
1 most deprived (44) 11 (25) 82 1.76 (0.39-8.89) 0.461 0.76 (0.15-3.93) 0.742
Data missing (8) 1 (13) 106 0.81 (0.07-8.89) 0.860 0.9 (0.07-11.96) 0.936
Age (no.)
25 and under (32) 6 (19) 99 1.00   1.00  
26 to 34 (84) 19 (23) 93 1.28 (0.51-3.19) 0.604 1.35(0.48-3.79) 0.570
35 and over (48) 16 (33) 86 1.90 (0.74-4.87) 0.179 2.38 (0.82-6.95) 0.112
Previous history of GDM (no.)
Yes (11) 4 (36) 83 1.7 (0.61-4.77) 0.315 2.83 (0.62-12.87) 0.179
No/Data missing (153) 37 (24) 91 1.00   1.00  
Family history of diabetes (no.)
Yes (59) 17 (29) 89 0.80 (0.43-1.49) 0.485 1.42 (0.64-3.15) 0.385
No/Data missing (105) 24 (23) 93 1.00   1.00  
Weight (no.)
Up to 76.8 kg (46) 3 (7) 70 1.00   1.00  
76.8 to 92.5kg (49) 15 (31) 88 5.19 (1.5-17.93) 0.009 4.98 (1.23-20.18) 0.024
Over 92.5kg (53) 20 (38) 89 6.49 (1.93-21.86) 0.003 5.22 (1.38-19.73) 0.015
Data missing (16) 3 (19) 150 3.05 (0.62-15.12) 0.172 3.5 (0.53-23.34) 0.196
Trimester at diagnosis (no.)
2nd trimester (16) 5 (31) 96 1.21 (0.47-3.07) 0.696 1.05 (0.32-3.45) 0.942
3rd trimester (147) 36 (24) 90 1.00   1.00  
HbA1c in mmol/mol (no.)
33.3 and under (19) 3 (16) 150 1.00   1.00  
33.3 to 42.1 (22) 5 (23) 82 1.42 (0.34-5.95) 0.630 1.59 (0.29-8.84) 0.597
42.1 plus (18) 8 (44) 57 4.41 (1.17-16.69) 0.029 5.34 (0.98-29) 0.052
Data missing (105) 25 (24) 98 1.66 (0.5-5.5) 0.407 1.9 (0.45-7.94) 0.381
Fasting blood glucose in mmol/l (no.)
Under 5.1 (52) 6 (12) 102 1.00   1.00  
5.1 to 7.0 (72) 20 (28) 93 2.62 (1.05-6.53) 0.038 1.66 (0.52-5.24) 0.392
Over 7.0 (17) 6 (35) 60 6.87 (2.2-21.44) 0.001 3.94 (0.92-16.91) 0.065
Data missing (23) 9 (39) 99 3.87 (1.38-10.89) 0.010 35.29 (2.18-570.68) 0.012
2 hour post load blood glucose in mmol/l (no.)
Under 8.5 (39) 7 (18) 83 1.00   1.00  
8.5-11.1 (67) 14 (21) 96 1.15 (0.46-2.85) 0.762 1.54 (0.54-4.38) 0.417
Over 11.1 (36) 12 (33) 84 2.58 (1.01-6.56) 0.047 2.37 (0.76-7.4) 0.139
Data missing (22) 8 (36) 99 2.13 (0.77-5.88) 0.144 0.1 (0.01-1.56) 0.101
Used Insulin during pregnancy (no.)
Yes (51) 20 (39) 88 2.82 (1.52-5.2) 0.001 2.81 (1.35-5.86) 0.006
No (113) 21 (19) 94 1.00   1.00  
Average weekly weight gain (kg)
0.3 and under (61) 16 (26) 82 1.00    
0.31 and above (64) 14 (22) 90 0.71 (0.35-1.47) 0.360 0.61 (0.2-1.45) 0.259
Data Missing (39) 11 (28) 105 1.04 (0.49-2.25) 0.912 1.12 (0.43-2.93) 0.821