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Table 2 Risk ratios for outcomes (individual and composite) by mode of delivery

From: Risk-adjusted operative delivery rates and maternal-neonatal outcomes as measures of quality assessment in obstetric care: a multicenter prospective study

  CD vs. SVD CD vs. VD AVD vs. SVD
Maternal complications Crude RR Adj RR Crude RR Adj RR Crude RR Adj RR
Major PPH 1.91 (1.08-3.35) 0.81 (0.38-1.70) 1.55 (0.91-2.64) 0.52 (0.25-1.07) 3.35 (1.68-6.66) 2.41 (1.20-4.83)§
Hysterectomy 5.29 (1.27-22.13) 1.68 (0.27-10.54) 5.29 (1.27-22.13) 1.39 (0.44-8.16) - -
Wound hematoma 0.86 (0.41-1.81) 0.32 (0.07-1.48) 0.71 (0.35-1.47) 0.28 (0.07-1.14) 3.04 (1.49-6.20) 2.09 (0-97-4.51)
TED 4.29 (0.71-25.68) 0.31 (0.06-1.45) 3.18 (0.64-15.72) 0.45 (0.06-2.90) 4.56 (0.41-50.27) 2.10 (0.97-4.55)
Uterine rupture - - - - - -
Life threatening composite 1.57 (1.02-2.41) 0.61 (0.36-1.03) 1.30 (0.86-1.95) 0.49 (0.29-0.84) 3.18 (1.92-5.25)§ 2.24 (1.46-.3.45)§
Minor PPH 1.11 (0.87-1.41) 0.66 (0.31-1.37) 0.71 (.129) 0.61 (0.28-1.32) 1.85 (1.36-2.51)§ 1.41 (1.02-1.93)§
III-IV degree tears - - - - 3.47 (1.78-6.76)§ 2.26 (1.13-4.52)§
Wound Dehiscence 2.38 (1.03-5.51) 1.15 (0.16-1.28) 2.12 (0.95-4.71) 0.97 (0.11-8.59) 2.28 (0.64-8.07) 2.14 (0.58-7.91)
Endometritis 5.22 (3.15-8.68)§ 4.74 (2.53- 8.87)§ 4.94 (3.05-8.00)§ 4.33 (2.39-7.84)§ 1.59 (0.55-4.58) 1.80 (0.79-4.08)
Bowel/bladder injury - - - - - -
Anaesthesiological 1.43 (0.26-7.81) 0.65 (0.16-2.55) 1.27 (0.25-6.54) 0.56 (0.12-2.46) 2.28 (0.26-20.39) 1.95 (0.21-18.03)
Other* 5.72 (2.15-15.24)§ 1.59 (0.62-4.09) 5.44 (2.14-13.81)§ 0.79 (0.40-1.55) 1.52 (0.18-12.62) 1.09 (0.12-9.76)
Non-life threatening composite 1.44 (1.18-1.76)§ 0.85 (0.44-1.64) 1.32 (1.09-1.60) 0.92 (0.72-1.81) 1.96 (1.49-2.57)§ 1.57 (1.11-2.23)§
Overall composite 1.46 (1.22-1.74)§ 1.04 (0.61-1.80) 1.31 (1.01-1.56) 0.77 (0.39-1.53) 2.13 (1.69-2.70)§ 1.67 (1.22-2.27)§
Neonatal complications Crude RR Adj RR Crude RR Adj RR Crude RR Adj RR
Mortality <7 days 12.40 (3.54-43.49)§ 3.04 (0.65-14.31) 10.32 (3.37-31.63)§ 2.50 (0.44-14.13) 3.04 (0.32-29.21) 3.61 (0.50-25.08)§
Mortality <28 days 4.29 (1.21-15.20) 0.68 (0.28-1.63) 2.72 (0.92-8.09) 0.51 (0.13-2.03) 6.84 (1.53-30.54) 7.12 (1.51-33.68)§
Neurologic symptoms 13.83 (5.75-33.28)§ 2.34 (0.86-6.36) 10.23 (4.85-21.59)§ 1.87 (0.64-5.43) 4.56 (1.14-18.22) 2.77 (0.69-11.06)
Life threatening composite 11.55 (5.53-24-10)§ 3.30 (0.85-12.78) 8.20 (4.39-15.30)§ 1.55 (0.35-6.97) 5.30 (1.78-15-78) 3.31 (1.59-6.90)§
Pulmonary disorders 5.31 (4.09-6.91)§ 2.07 (1.17-3.66)§ 5.27 (4.09-6.79)§ 2.12 (1.17-3.84)§ 1.08 (0.57-2.09) 0.81 (0.45-1.48)
Bacterial infections 4.37 (2.91-6.56)§ 1.34 (0.57-3.14) 4.60 (3.08-6.88)§ 1.43 (0.65-3.13) 0.48 (0.16-1.99) 0.42 (0.05-3.72)
pH < 7.00 3.32 (1.95-5.66)§ 1.41 (0.54-3.69) 2.05 (1.29-3.26) 0.78 (0.31-2.00) 7.30 (4.07-13.10)§ 7.02 (4.13-11.95)§
BD > 12 mmol/L 1.04 (0.73-1.48) 0.49 (0.24-0.97) 0.80 (0.57-1.12) 0.35 (0.16-0.77) 4.04 (2.91-5.60)§ 3.28 (2.01-5.37)§
Apgar < 7 4.56 (3.03-6.87)§ 2.06 (1.16-3.67)§ 3.17 (2.22-4.55)§ 1.01 (0.62-1.64) 5.43 (3.21-9.16)§ 5.00 (2.60-9.61)§
Other** 4.48 (3.88-5.18)§ 1.05 (0.81-1.36) 4.31 (3.75-4.94)§ 1.99 (1.62-2.43)§ 1.41 (1.04-1.93) 1.12 (0.79-1.57)
Non-life threatening composite 3.21 (2.83-3.65)§ 0.94 (0.75-1.18) 2.92 (2.59-3.29)§ 0.92 (0.73-1.17) 2.05 (1.65-2.54)§ 1.78 (1.42-2.22)§
Overall composite 3.35 (2.96-3.79)§ 0.95 (0.76-1.19) 3.01 (2.68-3.39)§ 0.89 (0.70-1.12) 2.10 (1.70-2.60)§ 1.92 (1.45-2.25)§
  1. Footnotes: Risk ratios adjusted by maternal age, maternal body mass index, gestational age at delivery, pregnancy at risk, parity, fetal presentation, number of fetuses, presence of previous CD, neonatal birth weight, grade of urgency (e.g. maternal or fetal compromise requiring immediate delivery).
  2. RR, risk ratios; SVD, spontaneous vaginal delivery; AVD, assisted vaginal delivery; CD, caesarean delivery; VD vaginal delivery; Adj, adjusted; PPH, post-partum hemorrhage; TED, thromboembolic disease; BD, base deficit.
  3. *Any other condition requiring Intensive Care Unit admission.
  4. **Any other condition requiring Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission in term neonates (37–42 weeks).
  5. §p < .001.