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Table 3 Distance, modelled travel time, reported travel time, and delay, by risk factors

From: Determinants of delays in travelling to an emergency obstetric care facility in Herat, Afghanistan: an analysis of cross-sectional survey data and spatial modelling

Risk factors N Straight-line distance (km) [IQ range] p-value* N Modelled travel time (hours) [IQ range] p-value* N Reported travel time (hours) [IQ range] p-value* N Delay (hours) [IQ range] p-value*
The number of health facilities visited before CEmOC
 2 or more 69 79.2 [21.4, 116.5]   69 2.1 [1.0, 4.1]   67 29.5 [8.2, 88.0]   67 24.9 [7.0, 84.3]  
 1 173 48.6 [10.8, 98.9]   174 1.6 [0.6, 2.7]   172 5.3 [3.1, 13.7]   172 3.8 [1.4, 11.5]  
 None (came straight to CEmOC) 159 7.8 [0.4, 18.0] <0.0001 159 0.6 [0.6, 1.0] <0.0001 158 0.8 [0.5, 1.5] <0.0001 158 0 [-0.2, 0.4] <0.0001
Complication type
 Haemorrhage in early pregnancy 60 10.4 [0.4, 37.9]   60 0.7 [0.6, 2.0]   58 4.5 [1.0, 29.5]   58 2.5 [0.2, 28.9]  
 Severe pre-eclampsia 51 7.8 [0,4, 33.9]   51 0.6 [0.6, 1.3]   50 3.0 [0.7, 26.5]   50 1.9 [0.1, 23.1]  
 APH 55 16.3 [2.9, 89.0]   55 0.9 [0.6, 2.3]   54 3.4 [0.8, 8.0]   54 1.5 [0.3, 5.6]  
 Eclampsia 93 27.1 [3.1, 84.1]   93 1.1 [0.6, 2.5]   93 3.5 [1.0, 9.0]   93 2.2 [0.1, 4.9]  
 Impending rupture of the uterus 38 52.3 [14.1, 98.9]   38 1.6 [0.9, 2.7]   38 6.4 [1.5, 14.3]   38 4.6 [0.3, 11.1]  
 Rupture of the uterus 30 65.7 [7.8, 106.3]   30 1.6 [0.6, 2.5]   29 5.0 [1.0, 10.0]   29 2.8 [0.6, 7.5]  
 PPH 48 21.3 [10.1, 63.9]   48 1.0 [0.6, 1.9]   47 1.3 [0.5, 4.0]   47 0.2 [-0.1, 1.2]  
 Sepsis 23 85.0 [9.7, 155.3]   24 2.6 [0.7, 7.8]   24 21.3 [2.8, 68.5]   24 12.4 [1.9, 54.9]  
 Other 4 74.4 [23.8, 109.9] <0.0001 4 3.1 [1.7, 8.4] 0.0041 3 16.3 [2.0, 27.0] 0.0003 4 9.1 [0.8, 19.1] <0.0001
Parity
 6 or more 90 19.9 [5.9, 75.0]   90 1.0 [0.6, 2.3]   87 4.0 [1.0, 13.0]   87 2.2 [0.3, 10.7]  
 3-5 96 14.2 [0.4, 71.4]   96 0.8 [0.6, 1.9]   94 2.7 [0.7, 9.5]   94 1.4 [0.1, 6.9]  
 1-2 78 48.6 [9.9, 106.3]   78 1.6 [0.6, 2.7]   78 5.0 [1.2, 14.5]   78 2.9 [0.2, 9.4]  
 Nullipara 109 11.7 [0.4, 71.7] 0.0078 109 0.8 [0.6, 2.0] 0.0608 108 3.0 [0.5, 10.5] 0.1786 108 1.6 [-0.1, 8.1] 0.3409
Antenatal Care
 No ANC 123 43.5 [7.1, 101.6]   123 1.6 [0.6, 3.3]   123 5.0 [1.5, 17.0]   123 3.0 [0.2, 13.8]  
 1-3 visits 161 21.5 [4.1, 79.2]   161 1.0 [0.6, 1.9]   159 3.5 [1.0, 9.8]   159 2.2 [0.1, 6.8]  
 4 or more visits 91 9.0 [0.4, 50.9] 0.0005 91 0.6 [0.6, 1.6] 0.0002 88 1.9 [0.5, 6.8] 0.0032 88 0.6 [-0.1, 5.4] 0.0390
Reported difficulty in obtaining transportation
 Very difficult 59 80.7 [37.2, 133.4]   59 3.1 [1.4, 6.6]   57 12.0 [4.0, 27.0]   57 6.4 [1.6, 20.8]  
 Moderately difficult 124 34.9 [12.0, 93.3]   124 1.4 [0.6, 2.6]   122 4.4 [1.0, 10.0]   122 2.1 [0.4, 7.0]  
 Not difficult 211 7.8 [0.4, 48.6] <0.0001 211 0.6 [0.6, 1.6] <0.0001 210 2.5 [0.5, 8.0] <0.0001 210 1.2 [-0.1, 5.9] <0.0001
Community access to a vehicle
 No 44 82.7 [30.4, 143.1]   44 3.3 [1.1, 7.1]   42 12.3 [4.5, 34.2]   42 6.6 [0.6, 33.2]  
 Yes 354 16.5 [0.4, 75.0] <0.0001 354 0.9 [0.6, 2.0] <0.0001 350 3.0 [1.0, 10.0] <0.0001 350 1.6 [0.1, 7.0] 0.0005
Ambulance use
 Yes 61 76.9 [41.2, 106.3]   61 2.1 [1.4, 3.1]   60 6.8 [4.0, 13.4]   60 4.6 [2.3, 10.9]  
 No 337 15.1 [0.4, 71.7] <0.0001 337 0.9 [0.6, 1.9] <0.0001 333 2.8 [0.7, 11.0] <0.0001 333 1.4 [0.0, 8.4] 0.0002
Seasons
 Summer 88 25.9 [0.4, 93.3]   88 1.0 [0.6, 2.6]   86 5.7 [1.0, 15.0]   86 4.0 [0.3, 13.4]  
 Fall 102 17.2 [2.3, 75.8]   102 1.0 [0.6, 2.2]   102 3.0 [0.5, 7.0]   102 1.3 [0.1, 5.4]  
 Winter 104 22.3 [0.4, 83.0]   105 1.0 [0.6, 1.9]   104 3.8 [1.0, 11.6]   104 1.9 [0, 8.4]  
 Spring 108 21.5 [5.9, 78.9] 0.8922 108 1.1 [0.6, 2.3] 0.9072 105 3.5 [1.0, 9.5] 0.1564 105 1.8 [0.2, 6.5] 0.1403
Household socio-economic status
 Poorest 105 80.7 [48.3, 117.8]   105 2.5 [1.6, 4.4]   103 8.0 [4.0, 17.5]   103 4.9 [1.6, 14.6]  
 2nd poorest 85 43.0 [16.3, 84.1]   85 1.7 [0.8, 2.6]   84 4.0 [1.3, 11.3]   84 1.8 [0.3, 8.8]  
 3rd poorest 105 13.4 [3.4, 39.3]   105 0.7 [0.6, 1.5]   103 2.0 [0.5, 9.0]   103 1.2 [-0.1, 7.0]  
 Least poor 107 0.4 [0.4, 7.8] <0.0001 107 0.6 [0.6, 0.7] <0.0001 106 1.0 [0.5, 5.0] <0.0001 106 0.4 [-0.1, 3.9] <0.0001
Occupation group
 Farming (including Kuchi/cattle herding) 136 65.0 [24.3, 113.3]   136 1.9 [1.0, 3.3]   135 6.0 [2.5, 18.5]   135 3.7 [0.6, 16.8]  
 Business/shopowners/drivers 67 1.4 [0.4, 11.3]   67 0.6 [0.6, 0.9]   66 2.3 [0.5, 6.0]   66 0.8 [0.1, 5.4]  
 Teachers, engineers, government officials 26 3.1 [0.4, 16.5]   26 0.6 [0.6, 1.0]   25 1.0 [0.5, 6.5]   25 0.4 [-0.1, 5.9]  
 Labourers 152 16.4 [0.4, 63.7]   152 0.8 [0.6, 1.8]   149 2.0 [0.5, 8.0]   149 1.2 [-0.1, 5.4]  
 Other 21 59.7 [4.1, 98.9] <0.0001 21 1.8 [0.6, 2.1] <0.0001 21 3.3 [1.2, 15.0] <0.0001 21 1.4 [0.3, 6.4] 0.0007
Husband’s education
 No 246 33.8 [6.9, 87.0]   246 1.3 [0.6, 2.7]   243 4.5 [1.0, 13.0]   242 2.6 [0.2, 9.6]  
 Yes 154 11.0 [0.4, 68.5] 0.0019 154 0.8 [0.6, 1.8] 0.0041 151 2.5 [0.7, 10.0] 0.0547 151 0.9 [0, 7.2] 0.1019
Participation in community activities in the last 12 months
 No 263 24.2 [3.4, 87.0]   263 1.1[ 0.6, 2.3]   260 4.5 [1.0, 14.8]   260 2.9 [0.2, 12.5]  
 Yes 130 15.0 [3.1, 69.1] 0.2084 130 0.9 [0.6, 2.1] 0.1918 127 2.5 [0.8, 6.5] 0.0155 127 0.8 [0.1, 5.4] 0.0132
Number of people the husband can borrow a small amount of money from
 0 23 24.2 [9.7, 71.2]   22 1.1 [0.6, 2.9]   21 5.0 [1.0, 20.0]   12 4.3 [0.6, 16.2]  
 1-2 137 33.7 [6.9, 84.1]   135 1.1 [0.6, 2.5]   134 4.5 [1.0, 13.0]   134 2.8 [0.2, 10.3]  
 3-4 136 23.2 [5.5, 89.0]   137 1.2 [0.6, 2.1]   136 3.5 [1.0, 13.5]   136 2.0 [0.1, 10.1]  
 5 or more 98 10.2 [0.4, 68.5] 0.0296 99 0.8 [0.6, 2.1] 0.0616 97 2.8 [0.8, 10.0] 0.3663 87 1.2 [0.1, 7.0] 0.5336
Number of people the husband can rely on in long-term emergency
 0 205 28.1 [5.7, 83.2]   205 1.1 [0.6, 2.7]   203 4.0 [1.0,14.0]   203 1.9 [0.2, 12.4]  
 1-2 133 17.2 [0.4, 75.0]   133 0.9 [0.6, 1.9]   130 3.9 [1.0, 8.0]   130 2.0 [0, 5.7]  
 3-4 22 15.6 [5.9, 94.5]   22 1.0 [0.6, 2.0]   22 2.0 [0.7, 5.5]   22 0.7 [0.1, 3.9]  
 5 or more 36 9.8 [0.4, 98.7] 0.4958 36 0.9 [0.6, 2.0] 0.2261 35 8.0 [2.0, 34.5] 0.081 35 5.6 [0.6, 33.2] 0.0595
Woman’s birth family lives nearby
 No 83 27.1 [5.9, 82.0]   85 1.1 [0.6, 2.0]   84 4.6 [1.0, 14.8]   84 2.6 [0.1, 13.1]  
 Yes 289 18.3 [0.4, 79.2] 0.3787 289 1.0 [0.6, 2.2] 0.5561 284 3.5 [1.0, 10.0] 0.2718 284 1.8 [0.2, 7.2] 0.5272
Household type
 Nuclear 220 16.5 [4.1, 76.3]   220 1.0 [0.6, 2.0]   214 3.1 [1.0, 11.0]   214 1.5 [0.1, 7.5]  
 Extended 181 24.4 [2.3, 89.0] 0.3575 181 1.2 [0.6, 2.5] 0.2263 181 4.5 [1.0, 14.3] 0.165 181 2.8 [0.2, 10.7] 0.2774
Residence
 Rural 301 50.9 [16.0, 98.9]   302 1.6 [0.8, 2.7]   298 4.8 [1.5, 14.5]   298 2.9 [0.4, 12.4]  
 Urban 101 0.4 [0.4, 0.4] <0.0001 101 0.6 [0.6, 0.6] <0.0001 99 0.5 [0.5, 4.5] <0.0001 99 0.2 [-0.1, 3.9] <0.0001
  1. Note: APH = antepartum haemorrhage; CEmOC = comprehensive emergency obstetric care; PPH = postpartum haemorrhage; *P-values are from Kruskal-Wallis Test.
  2. *P-values are from Kruskal-Wallis Test.