Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics in early pregnant women and a population based referent group

From: Reported dietary intake in early pregnant compared to non-pregnant women – a cross-sectional study

  Pregnant women Referent women Pregnant vs referent women
  <35 years ≥35 years   <35 years ≥35 years  
(n = 176) (n = 33) p-value (n = 103) (n = 103) p-value p-value
Age (mean (95% CI))1 29.2 (28.7 –29.7) 37.0 (36.4-37.6) - 30.1 (30.0-30.2) 40.0 (40.0 – 40.0) - <0.0014
Married or cohabitant (%)2 94.5 100 0.359 90.3 75.5 0.001 0.302
Education (% with university)2 59.5 77.4 0.059 35.9 60.8 <0.001 <0.001
BMI (mean (95% CI))1 24.1 (23.3-24.8) 25.0 (23.3-26.8) 0.330 25.9 (24.8-26.9) 24.5 (23.4-25.6) 0.085 0.179
 Normal weight BMI < 24.9 (%)2 71.4 61.3 0.354 54.4 68.9 0.099 0.096
 Overweight BMI ≥25.0-29.9 (%) 20.5 32.3   29.1 19.4   
 Obese BMI ≥ 30.0 (%) 8.1 6.5   16.5 11.7   
Smoking (% smoker)2 0.0 3.2 0.160 6.8 5.8 0.774 0.017
Snuff use (% user)2 1.2 0.0 1.000 17.5 7.8 0.036 <0.001
Alcohol g/day (median (min - max))3 0.11 (0-15.0) 1.8 (0-13.7) 0.028 1.8 (0-21.2) 2.5 (0-19.4) <0.001 <0.001
Alcohol No (%)2 38.6 21.2 0.041 12.6 4.9 0.040 <0.001
Low physical activity at work (%)2 27.3 45.5 0.037 25.2 34.0 0.170 0.330
Low physical activity at leisure activity (%)2 57.1 60.0 0.771 56.3 38.9 0.012 0.237
Low physical activity at work and leisure time (%)2 15.9 27.3 0.117 21.4 15.5 0.281 0.868
  1. 1Differences between means were tested with two-sided Student's t-test. Means for BMI in age groups were adjusted for education level using a generalized linear model. For comparisons between all pregnant and referent women mean values were adjusted for education and age group using a generalized linear model.
  2. 2Differences in sampling distribution were tested with Pearson's Chi-square test or Fischer's exact test if five or fewer observations in a cell; For BMI groups (normal weight, overweight, obesity) differences in sample distribution were tested among all tree levels.
  3. 3Data, which are based on FFQ information, were not normally distributed. Differences between age groups were tested with Mann-Whitney U test.
  4. 4The difference in mean age between pregnant and referent women was statistically significant in both age strata (p < 0.01).