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Table 2 Baseline mental health (selected versus universal population)

From: Antenatal mindfulness intervention to reduce depression, anxiety and stress: a pilot randomised controlled trial of the MindBabyBody program in an Australian tertiary maternity hospital

  Non-randomised trial (selected population) (n = 20)* Randomised trial (universal population) (n = 32)* Comparison
  M (SD) M (SD) Mean difference (95% CI) t (df) p
Depression      
CES-D depression 23.18 (8.04) 13.74 (8.68) −9.43 (−14.57, −4.30) −3.70 (46) <0.001
DASS depression 12.95 (8.01) 6.88 (8.30) −6.07 (−10.84, −1.30) −2.56 (49) 0.01
Anxiety      
STAI state anxiety 48.39 (12.59) 35.83 (12.05) −12.56 (−19.91, −5.20) −3.44 (46) <0.001
DASS anxiety 10.00 (7.54) 7.25 (7.48) −2.75 (−7.12, 1.62) −1.27 (49) 0.21
Stress      
PSS stress 21.80 (4.99) 17.06 (6.43) −4.74 (−8.13, 1.35) −2.81 (50) <0.001
DASS stress 19.16 (7.25) 13.88 (10.24) −5.28 (−10.67, 0.10) −1.97 (49) 0.05
Mindfulness      
Nonreactivity 18.74 (5.25) 20.00 (6.04) 1.23 (−2.16, 4.62) 0.73 (47) 0.47
Observing 21.68 (4.97) 24.03 (6.01) 2.35 (−0.98, 5.67) 1.42 (47) 0.16
Acting with awareness 23.68 (3.51) 26.27 (5.97) 2.58 (−0.46, 5.63) 1.71 (47) 0.10
Describing 26.37 (4.79) 27.29 (6.70) 0.92 (−2.63, 4.47) 0.52 (48) 0.60
Nonjudging 23.32 (5.96) 25.87 (6.39) 2.55 (−1.13, 6.23) 1.40 (47) 0.17
Full scale 113.79 (14.76) 123.07 (20.74) 9.28 (−1.79, 20.35) 1.69 (46) 0.10
  1. *Denominators may vary due to missing numbers.
  2. NB. Significant differences are presented in bold.