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Table 11 Collective grading of evidence for impact of health systems and human resource interventions on stillbirth and related perinatal outcomes

From: Delivering interventions to reduce the global burden of stillbirths: improving service supply and community demand

  Evidence of no or negative impact
(leave out of programs)
Uncertain evidence
(need for additional research before including in programs)
Some evidence
(may include in programs, but further evaluation is warranted)
Clear evidence
(merits inclusion in programs)
Emergency loan/insurance funds for obstetric emergencies   X   
Financial incentives to improve access to emergency obstetric care     X
Training traditional birth attendants in clean delivery and referral     X
Training of other cadres of community health workers    X  
Training nurse-aides as birth attendants (including Caesarean section)   X   
Training professional midwives in antenatal and intrapartum care    X  
Obstetric drills   X   
Training in neonatal resuscitation for physicians and other health workers    X  
Public-private partnerships   X   
Maternity waiting homes   X   
Home birth with skilled attendance versus hospital birth    X
(high-income country studies only; no disadvantage to home birth)
Perinatal audit    X