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Table 18 Collective grading of evidence for impact of monitoring interventions in pregnancy on stillbirth and related perinatal outcomes

From: Reducing stillbirths: screening and monitoring during pregnancy and labour

  Evidence of no or negative impact
(leave out of programmes)
Uncertain evidence
(need for additional research before including in programmes)
Some evidence
(may include in programmes, but further evaluation is warranted)
Clear evidence
(merits inclusion in programmes)
Pregnancy risk screening   X   
Fetal movement counting   X X
(for high-risk pregnancies)
Ultrasound scanning   X   
Doppler velocimetry   X (uterine artery and unselected populations) X (umbilical artery and ductus venosus in high-risk pregnancies)  
Pelvimetry   X   
Detection and management of diabetes mellitus   X   
Antepartum fetal heart rate monitoring with cardiotocography (NST, CST)   X   
Fetal BPP scoring   X   
Vibroacoustic stimulation   X   
Amniotic fluid volume assessment   X (oligohydramnios clear risk factor)   
Home vs. hospital bed rest and monitoring for high-risk pregnancies   X   
In-hospital fetal surveillance unit   X   
Use of the partograph   X   
Intrapartum cardiotocography and pulse oximetry    X (based largely on observational evidence)