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Table 8 Other intervention studies on the effect of ANC on stillbirth and perinatal mortality

From: Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy

Source Location and Type of Study Intervention Stillbirths/Perinatal Outcomes
Intervention studies
Lovell et al. 1987 [123] UK.
RCT. N = 246 women.
Compared an intervention group of women who were allowed to carry their full set of antenatal records until childbirth to a control group who carried a 'co-op card,' with their maternity notes retained by the hospital. PM: RR = 1.04 (95% CI: 0.15–7.24) [NS]
[2/104 vs 2/108 in intervention group vs control group, respectively]
Majoko et al. 2007 [63] Zimbabwe, rural ANC/primary care clinics.
Cluster (clinic-randomised) RCT. N = 13,517 low-risk pregnant women (N = 6897 intervention group, N = 6620 controls).
Compared pregnancy outcomes among women who completed a focused 5-visit ANC program with controls given standard ANC (13 visits, every 4 weeks from booking until 28 wks, every 2 wks between 28 and 36 wks and weekly after 36 wks until childbirth). Mean visits achieved: 4 for intervention group, 4 for control group. SB: OR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.62–1.27) [NS]
[12.0/1000 vs 13.5/1000 in focused ANC vs standard ANC groups, respectively]
PMR: OR = 1.11 (95% CI: 0.89–1.39) [NS] [28/1000 vs. 25.2/1000 in focused ANC vs standard ANC groups, respectively]
O'Rourke 1998 [78]. Bolivia (Inquisivi Province). Rural community-based setting.
Before-after study. N = 409 women.
Evaluated the impact of an intervention that initiated and strengthened women's organisations, developed women's skills in problem identification and prioritisation, and trained community members in safe birthing techniques in terms of utilisation of ANC. Outcome measures included breastfeeding rates, participation in women's organisations, and perinatal mortality. PM: 62.4% reduction (P < 0.001)
[4.4% after vs. 11.7% before the program]
Wilkinson et al. 1991 [72] South Africa (Lebowa). Rural hospital (Jane Furse Hospital).
Before-after study. N = 640 women assessed at baseline, N = 2193 women assessed after intervention.
Employed perinatal audit to identify causes of perinatal death, then implemented targeted intervention strategies to reduce the number of preventable perinatal deaths. PM: 31.7% reduction (χ2 = 3.871 df, P < 0.05) [60/1000 (38/640) before vs 41/1000 (90/2193) after]
Reduction in potentially avoidable deaths: (χ2 = 4.501 df, P < 0.05)