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Table 18 Summary of evidence grading for all interventions prior to and during pregnancy to prevent stillbirth and perinatal mortality reviewed in this paper

From: Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy

  Evidence of no or negative impact
(leave out of programs)
Uncertain evidence
(need for additional research before including in programs)
Some evidence
(may include in programs, but further evaluation is warranted)
Clear evidence
(merits inclusion in programs)
Female genital mutilation   X   
Indoor air pollution   X   
Smoking cessation   X   
Smokeless tobacco use   X   
ANC in pregnancy   X   
Peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation   X
(demonstrated infant benefit)
Iron (iron-folate) supplementation   X
(demonstrated maternal benefit)
Vitamin A/β-carotene supplementation   X   
Multivitamin/multiple micronutrient supplementation    X  
Magnesium supplementation   X   
Balanced protein-energy supplementation    X