|Source||Location and Type of Study||Intervention||Stillbirths/Perinatal Outcomes|
|Reviews and meta-analyses|
|Kramer and Kakuma 2003 ||
Gambia, India, Greece, Chile, Colombia, USA.|
Meta-analysis (Cochrane). 6 RCTs included.
|Assessed the impact of balanced antenatal protein-energy supplementation on pregnancy outcomes in supplemented individuals compared to controls.||SBR: RR = 0.55 (95% CI: 0.31–0.97).|
|Other intervention studies|
|Kielmann et al. 1978 ||
India, Rural health research centre, Narangwal (Punjab).|
Quasi-RCT, clustered by village.
|Villages allocated to 1 of 3 service groups (medical care: MC), nutrition supplementation (NUT), and nutrition+medical care (NUT+MC) provided by auxiliary health workers resident in each village, or control villages receiving no care. Outcomes measured via longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys.||
SBR: Lower in all service input villages combined (P < 0.05 compared to controls), lowest in NUT villages (P < 0.025 compared to controls).|
PMR: Higher in MC+NUT than NUT [NS]
ENMR: Lower in all service input villages combined (P < 0.005 compared to controls). Lowest in MC +NUT villages (28/1000 live births), intermediate in MC and in the NUT villages (37/1000) and high in control villages (52.1/1000).