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Table 16 Impact of balanced protein-energy supplementation on stillbirth and perinatal mortality

From: Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy

Source Location and Type of Study Intervention Stillbirths/Perinatal Outcomes
Reviews and meta-analyses
Kramer and Kakuma 2003 [112] Gambia, India, Greece, Chile, Colombia, USA.
Meta-analysis (Cochrane). 6 RCTs included.
Assessed the impact of balanced antenatal protein-energy supplementation on pregnancy outcomes in supplemented individuals compared to controls. SBR: RR = 0.55 (95% CI: 0.31–0.97).
Other intervention studies
Kielmann et al. 1978 [117] India, Rural health research centre, Narangwal (Punjab).
Quasi-RCT, clustered by village.
Villages allocated to 1 of 3 service groups (medical care: MC), nutrition supplementation (NUT), and nutrition+medical care (NUT+MC) provided by auxiliary health workers resident in each village, or control villages receiving no care. Outcomes measured via longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys. SBR: Lower in all service input villages combined (P < 0.05 compared to controls), lowest in NUT villages (P < 0.025 compared to controls).
PMR: Higher in MC+NUT than NUT [NS]
ENMR: Lower in all service input villages combined (P < 0.005 compared to controls). Lowest in MC +NUT villages (28/1000 live births), intermediate in MC and in the NUT villages (37/1000) and high in control villages (52.1/1000).