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Table 13 Impact of vitamin A/β-carotene supplementation on stillbirths and perinatal mortality

From: Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy

Source Location and Type of Study Intervention Stillbirths/Perinatal outcome
Reviews and meta-analyses
Rumbold et al. 2005 [87] Tanzania, Nepal, Indonesia.
Meta-analysis (Cochrane). 3 RCTs included.
Assessed the impact on pregnancy outcomes of vitamin A supplementation +/- multivitamins (intervention #1), compared to supplementation with placebo +/- multivitamins (controls). Also assessed the impact of vitamin A + iron + folate (intervention #2) vs. iron + folate (controls). SBR: RR = 1.04 (95% CI: 0.60–1.79) [NS] in those supplemented with vitamin A (+/- multivitamins) vs. those supplemented with placebo (+/- multivitamins)[1 RCT, N = 11723 women]
SBR: RR = 1.26 (95% CI: 0.53–3.01) [NS] in those supplemented with vitamin A + iron + folate vs. those supplemented with iron + folate [2 RCTs, N = 940 women]
van den Broek et al. 2002 [96] Nepal.
Review (Cochrane). 1 RCT included.
Assessed the impact on pregnancy outcomes of vitamin A (intervention #1) and/or β-carotene (intervention #2) supplementation vs. placebo (controls). Fetal death: RR = 1.04 (95% CI: 0.92–1.17) [NS] in women receiving vitamin A vs. controls, respectively.
Fetal death: RR = 1.03 (95% CI: 0.91–1.16) [NS] in women receiving β-carotene vs. controls, respectively.
Wiysonge et al. 2005 [100] South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Malawi.
Meta-analysis (Cochrane). 4 RCTs included.
Compared the impact on pregnancy outcomes of vitamin A supplementation (intervention) vs. no vitamin A supplementation (controls). SBR: OR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.67–1.46) [NS].