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Table 1 Classification systems and their characteristics for use in low- and middle-income countries

From: Making stillbirths count, making numbers talk - Issues in data collection for stillbirths

Systems tested in low- or middle-income countries Number of categories of stillbirthsa Are intrapartum events captured in subcategories? Does the system aim to capture underlying cause? Are the main categories consistent with underlying cause? Resources desirable for useb Does the system separate unknown from unexplained? Agreement tested (Kappa score or level of agreement) References
Aberdeen 8-0-0 no yes no B no 0.35-0.97 [49, 84, 9395]
CODAC 10-94-577 yes yes yes B, C yes 0.65-0.94 [49, 50]
CODAC Simplified 10-30 yes yes yes B, C yes no [50]
ICD-10 17-134 yes yes yes/no B no no [23]
Nordic Baltic 13-0-0 no no no A no 0.85 [84]
Pattinsonc 12-48-0 yes no no B no no [96, 97]
PSANZ-PDC 11-52-33 yes/no yes yes/no B, C yes 0.63-0.90 [49, 86]
ReCoDe 9-28-1 yes/no no no B, C yes 0.51 [49, 98]
Tulip 6-24-7 no/yes yes yes B, C yes 0.74-0.86 [49, 87]
Whitfieldc 12-15-2 no yes no B no no [95, 99]
Wigglesworth 5-0-0 no no no A no 0.25-0.85 [49, 84]
  1. aNumber of main categories followed by subcategories.
  2. bA = little investigations and no placental examinations necessary; B = some clinical and pathological investigations necessary or desirable; C = placental investigations necessary or desirable (placental conditions included in the classification).
  3. cModified versions of the Aberdeen classification.
  4. Acronyms: CODAC: Causes of Death and Associated Conditions, PSANZ-PDC: Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand Perinatal Death Classification, ReCoDe: Relevant Conditions of Death.