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Table 4 Results of the multilevel analysis of the predictors of indicators of use of maternal and child health services.

From: Determinants of use of maternal health services in Nigeria - looking beyond individual and household factors

Characteristics n Odds Ratio (Std. Error)a
   Antenatal care Medical personnel at delivery Postnatal care
   Fixed Effects b
Individual Factors     
Education     
   None RC) 1013 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Primary 537 1.88*** (0.30) 1.69*** (0.28) 1.65*** (0.25)
   Secondary 501 2.01*** (0.43) 3.01*** (0.60) 2.06*** (0.38)
   Post-secondary 107 5.03** (2.64) 10.68*** (4.88) 3.50*** (1.15)
Age at last birth in single years 2158 1.18** (0.07) 1.08 (0.07) 1.13* (0.07)
Square of age at last birth 2158 0.99** (0.001) 0.99 (0.001) 0.99* (0.001)
Ethnic Group     
   Hausa RC) 656 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Yoruba 313 1.22 (0.51) 1.62 (0.58) 1.57 (0.52)
   Igbo 221 2.09§(0.87) 3.76**** (1.49) 2.10* (0.78)
   Fulani 136 0.68 (0.18) 0.77 (0.25) 1.22 (0.33)
   Kanuri 66 0.67 (0.34) 1.72 (0.90) 0.97 (0.50)
   Others 766 1.35 (0.32) 2.04** (0.53) 1.55§(0.38)
Child's rank of birth     
   3 + (RC) 750 1.00 1.00 1.00
   1 -- 2 1408 1.17 (0.19) 1.22 (0.20) 1.10 (0.16)
Attitudes towards family planning     
   Disapprove (RC)     
   Approve 1097 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1061 1.64*** (0.22) 1.28§(0.17) 1.58*** (0.20)
Ideal family size     
   Provided a non-numeric response (Up to God, etc.) (RC)     
   Provided a numeric response 1036 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1122 1.14 (0.16) 1.71*** (0.24) 1.47** (0.19)
Household Factors     
Household socio-economic status     
   Very poor (RC)     
   Poor 440 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Medium 466 1.53* (0.27) 1.88** (0.43) 1.01 (0.20)
   Rich 394 2.48*** (0.48) 2.72*** (0.62) 1.69** (0.34)
   Very rich 431 3.76*** (0.87) 4.27*** (1.07) 2.46*** (0.55)
  427 5.86*** (1.69) 4.34*** (1.23) 3.02*** (0.76)
Community Factors     
Type of Place of Residence     
   Rural (RC)     
   Urban 1495 1.00 1.00 1.00
  663 2.36*** (0.48) 1.69** (0.33) 1.63** (0.29)
Community media saturation     
   Low (RC)     
   Medium 858 1.00 1.00 1.00
   High 692 1.51* (0.25) 1.44* (0.27) 1.51* (0.26)
  608 1.29 (0.36) 2.17** (0.58) 1.20 (0.30)
Prevalence of small family norm in community     
   Low (< 11%) (RC)     
   Medium (11 -- 30%) 927 1.00 1.00 1.00
   High (< 30%) 663 1.39 (0.30) 1.50§(0.33) 1.14 (0.24)
  568 1.91* (0.58) 1.85* (0.53) 1.49 (0.40)
State-level Factors     
Average number of people to a PHC in the state of residence     
   Small (< 5500) (RC)     
   Medium (5500 -- 9000)     
   Large (> 9000) 737 1.00 1.00 1.00
  735 0.63 (0.24) 0.71 (0.24) 0.87 (0.30)
  716 0.42* (0.16) 0.41** (0.14) 0.66 (0.23)
   Random Effects
State Level Variance   0.70** (0.23) 0.56** (0.19) 0.60** (0.20)
Residual intra-class correlation   0.183 0.152 0.160
Log-likelihood   -939.50 -881.86 -1052.80
AIC   1931.01 1815.73 2157.61
  1. Source: Nigerian National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey, 2005; Data on the ration of people to a Primary Health Center (PHC) came from the 2006 Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire Survey, a national survey conducted by the Nigeria Federal Bureau of Statistics.
  2. Notes: § p < 0.1; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  3. RC = reference category
  4. Standard errors are in parenthesis
  5. aModel with fixed effects at the individual, household, community and state levels, and random effects at the state level;
  6. bfixed effects expressed as odds ratio