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Table 1 Rates and main indications for caesarean section (as percentage of overall births and percentages of rates consecutively)

From: Caesarean section in four South East Asian countries: reasons for, rates, associated care practices and health outcomes

  Indonesia    Malaysia    The Philippines    Thailand    
  Overall Tertiary District Overall Tertiary 1 Tertiary 2 Overall Tertiary 1 Tertiary 2 Overall Regional University Provincial
  n = 2086 n = 1019 n = 1067 n = 2379 n = 1249 n = 1130 n = 2085 n = 1026 n = 1059 n = 3000 n = 1000 n = 1000 n = 1000
Rate of caesarean section 29.6 28.7 30.6 19.1 21.1 16.8 22.7 12.3 32.9 34.8 33.3 33.2 38.0
Indication for caesarean section              
Malpresentations 5.5 3.8 7.1 5.0 5.4 4.6 3.9 2.5 5.3 4.5 5.5 3.8 4.3
Previous caesarean section 4.5 3.0 5.8 3.3 3.5 3.1 10.1 6.6 13.4 9.7 8.8 9.3 11.0
Cephalopelvic disproportion 3.8 2.0 5.5 4.8 5.4 4.2 3.0 1.3 4.6 11.4 9.7 9.3 15.2
Fetal distress 3.3 4.0 2.6 3.3 3.8 2.7 2.0 0.3 3.7 4.2 5.2 3.8 3.7
Failure to progress 3.4 4.3 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.2 1.4 0.6
Antepartum haemorrhage 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.7 1.0 2.5 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.5
Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia 2.2 3.2 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 1.1 0.4 0.7
Maternal request 2.1 3.7 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Premature rupture of membranes 1.6 1.0 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3
Other Maternal conditions 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.7 1.0 0.4 1.0 0.0 1.9 1.4 0.6 2.9 0.8
Multiple pregnancy 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.9
Other 0.4 0.7 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.9 0.5 1.2 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.0
  1. Figures are percentage rounded to one decimal point