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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and measures according to treatment group

From: Long-term effectiveness and costs of a brief self-management intervention in women with pregnancy-related low back pain after delivery

Variable Usual Care (n = 64) Mean (SD) Experimental Intervention (n = 62) Mean (SD)
Age 31.5 (3.1) 31.4 (3.6)
Localisation of pain: (n/%)   
Lumbar spine 25 (39.1) 24 (38.7)
SI joints (one or two) 34 (53.1) 34 (54.8)
Symphysis 43 (67.2) 42 (67.7)
History of low back pain (n/%) 43 (67.2) 44 (71.0)
Parity 2.1 (1.0) 2.3 (1.0)
Primary outcomes   
VAS (pain today) (0–100) 54.3 (17.5) 53.5 (19.1)
VAS (pain this week) (0–100) 59.2 (17.9) 57.0 (17.8)
RDQ (0–24) 13.5 (4.3) 13.3 (4.6)
Secondary outcomes   
IPA:   
Autonomy in self-care (0–28) 9.6 (5.7) 8.8 (5.1)
Mobility and leisure (0–20) 10.9 (3.7) 10.0 (4.7)
Family role (0–28) 15.4 (5.8) 14.4 (5.6)
Social Relationships (0–24) 5.8 (3.3) 5.5 (3.4)
MC (VAS)* (0–100) 69.5 (17.5) 72.0 (15.7)
TSK:   
Total score (17–68) 35.7 (5.9) 32.9 (5.0)
Fear Avoidance† (8–32) 18.8 (3.6) 17.0 (3.0)
Harm ‡ (5–20) 8.5 (2.2) 7.9 (2.3)
PCS 12.2 (9.8) 11.2 (8.4)
BDI 5.3 (4.9) 5.1 (4.2)
NEM 3.3 (3.4) 2.4 (2.3)
PEM 7.8 (2.6) 8.5 (2.4)
SF-36:   
General Health 54.6 (12.5) 57.8 (13.1)
Expectancy treatment 79.0 (17.8) 78.3 (16.6)
PBS # (0–8) 1.3 (1.3) 1.5 (1.6)
  1. * first mean complaint was selected, † TSK subscale fear-avoidance (items 1,2,9,10,13,14,15,17), ‡ TSK subscale harm (items 3,5,6,7,11), ¶mean BDI calculated without items 15,16, 19, # Pain Behavior Scale filled out by research-physiotherapist after physical examination.
  2. SI = Sacroiliac, VAS = Visual Analog rating Scale, RDQ = Roland Disability Questionnaire, IPA = Impact on Participation and Autonomy, MC = Main Complaint, TSK = Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, PCS = Pain Catastrophying Scale, BDI = Beck Disability Inventory, NEM = Negative Emotionally Scale, PEM = positive Emotionally Scale, SF-36 = Short-Form-36, PBS = Pain Behavior Scale