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Table 2 Type and frequency of near-miss criteria in 763 near miss cases admitted to four hospitals in Serang and Pandeglang (November 2003 – October 2004)

From: Obstetric near miss and deaths in public and private hospitals in Indonesia

ORGAN DYSFUNCTION N (%)
Any cardiac dysfunction 39 (5.1)
   Pulmonary oedema 7 (0.9)
   Cardiac arrest 7 (0.9)
   Cardiac failure 27 (3.5)
Pulmonary embolism 2 (0.3)
Any vascular dysfunction 593 (77.7)
   Hypovolemia requiring 2 or more units of blood 485 (63.6)
   Blood loss with hypovolemic shock 227 (29.8)
   Infusion and/or transfusion of > = 1 litre per 2 hours 38 (5.0)
   Free flow infusion 278 (36.4)
   Massive haemorrhage recorded in notes 221 (29.0)
Immunological dysfunction 1 (0.1)
   Septic shock 1 (0.1)
Respiratory dysfunction 1 (0.1)
   Intubation or ventilation for reasons other than general anaesthesia 1 (0.1)
   Oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry < 90% leading to ventilation 1 (0.1)
Renal dysfunction 34 (4.5)
   Oliguria < 30 ml per hour or < 400 ml per 24 hours 34 (4.5)
   Shock not responsive to intravascular rehydration or diuresis 1 (0.1)
   Creatinine clearance test 2 (0.3)
   Haemodialysis 2 (0.3)
Liver dysfunction 19 (2.5)
   Jaundice in pre eclampsia 1 (0.1)
   Abnormal liver function tests 18 (2.4)
Coagulation dysfunction 8 (1.0)
   Acute thrombocytopenia 3 (0.4)
   Prolonged bleeding time 6 (0.8)
   Abnormal APTT or TT 1 (0.1)
   Coagulopathy 2 (0.3)
Any Cerebral dysfunction 14 (1.8)
   Coma 9 (1.2)
   Cerebral oedema 5 (0.7)
   Seizures other than eclampsia 2 (0.3)
MANAGEMENT BASED CRITERION 97 (12.7)
   Intensive care admission 38 (5.0)
   Emergency hysterectomy 19 (2.5)
   Needs resuscitation 14 (1.8)
   Anaesthetic accident 1 (0.1)
   Referral to tertiary hospital 35 (4.6)
CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS 193 (25.3)
   Eclampsia 99 (13.0)
   Uterine rupture 26 (3.4%)
   Ectopic pregnancy 68 (8.9%)
  1. Note: numbers add up to > 100% because one near miss can have more than one criterion