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Table 2 Annual rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) in Newfoundland and Labrador before folic acid supplementation (1991–1993), prior to folic acid fortification (1994–1997) and after fortification (1998–2001)

From: A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects

Period No. of cases of NTDs Total no. of births* Rate per 1,000 births
  In live births and stillbirths In terminated pregnancies Total   
Pre-supplementation      
1991–1993 50 40 90 20,711 4.35
Pre-fortification      
1994–1997 53 50 103 23,592 4.37
Post-fortification      
1998–2001 8 11 19 19,816 0.96
  1. * The total number of births includes live births, stillbirths and terminations for an NTD.