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Table 5 Effect of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy on small for gestational age (< 10th percentile) and stillbirth, with modeling of effect-modification by twin pregnancy and maternal smoking, Nova Scotia, 1988–2000.

From: The effect of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy on small for gestational age and stillbirth: a population based study

  Adjusted
  Odds ratio 95% CI P value
Small for gestational age    
Normotensive women 1.0 - -
Gestational hypertension without proteinuria 1.5 1.4,1.6 <0.001
Gestational hypertension with proteinuria 3.7 3.3,4.1 <0.001
Pre-existing hypertension 2.5 2.1,3.0 <0.001
Twins 4.7 4.3,5.2 <0.001
   Gestational hypertension without proteinuria × twins 0.7 0.6,0.9 0.01
   Gestational hypertension with proteinuria × twins 0.3 0.2,0.4 <0.001
   Pre-existing hypertension × twins 0.7 0.3,1.4 0.29
Smoking 2.9 2.8,3.0 <0.001
   Gestational hypertension without proteinuria × smoking 1.0 0.9,1.2 0.96
   Gestational hypertension with proteinuria × smoking 0.9 0.7,1.1 0.28
   Pre-existing hypertension × smoking 0.6 0.4,0.8 0.002
Stillbirth    
Normotensive women 1.0 - -
Gestational hypertension without proteinuria 0.8 0.5,1.2 0.24
Gestational hypertension with proteinuria 1.4 0.6,2.9 0.42
Pre-existing hypertension 3.5 2.0,6.2 <0.001
Smoking 1.4 1.2,1.7 <0.001
   Gestational hypertension without proteinuria × smoking 2.5 1.3,4.7 0.006
   Gestational hypertension with proteinuria × smoking 1.8 0.4,5.3 0.33
   Pre-existing hypertension × smoking 0.6 0.1,2.5 0.43
  1. CI denotes Confidence interval.** Adjusted for smoking, maternal age, gestational diabetes, pre-existing diabetes,maternal anemia, nulliparity, marital status, drug abuse, prepregnancy weight,weight gain, antenatal steroids, twins and infant sex. ** Adjusted for smoking, maternal autoantibodies, maternal age, pre-existing diabetes, maternal anemia, prepregnancy weight and twins.