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Table 1 Factors associated with four or more antenatal care visits in Nepal

From: Factors associated with the use and quality of antenatal care in Nepal: a population-based study using the demographic and health survey data

Study variables1 Total number of women Number (%) of women who had 4 or more ANC visits (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) P Adjusted OR (95% CI) P
Women’s age at birth of child in years (Mean, SD) 25.3 24.3 (4.87)   <0.001   0.021
For every ten years increase in age of women Linear   0.66 (0.57 to 0.77) <0.001 1.34 (1.05 to 1.72)  
Quadratic   0.63 (0.52 to 0.76) <0.001   
Women’s education     <0.001   <0.001
No education 1822 523 (28.7) 1 (Referent category)   1 (referent category)  
Primary education 835 431 (51.6) 2.65 (2.15 to 3.26)   1.72 (1.38 to 2.14)  
Secondary education 1229 881 (71.7) 6.28 (5.00 to 7.89)   2.50 (1.94 to 3.22)  
Tertiary education 263 243 (92.6) 30.86 (15.67 to 60.77)   7.11 (3.28 to 15.44)  
Women’s work status in the past 12 months     0.001 - -
Didn't work in paid employment 1150 652 (56.7) 1 (Referent category)    
Worked in paid employment 2999 1426 (47.5) 0.69 (0.56 to 0.86)    
Wealth quintile to which the women’s household belonged     <0.001   <0.001
Poorest 979 277 (28.3) 1 (Referent category)   1 (Referent category)  
Poorer 899 352 (39.1) 1.63 (1.26 to 2.11)   1.17 (0.88 to 1.56)  
Middle 873 419 (48.0) 2.35 (1.71 to 3.21)   1.28 (0.90 to 1.83)  
Richer 748 487 (65.1) 4.74 (3.44 to 6.54)   1.87 (1.28 to 2.74)  
Richest 649 543 (83.7) 13.03 (9.28 to 18.30)   3.00 (1.95 to 4.60)  
Religion     0.023 - -
Hindu 3444 1787 (51.9) 1 (Referent category)    
Buddhist 360 158 (43.9) 0.73 (0.52 to 1.02)    
Muslim 235 82 (34.9) 0.50 (0.30 to 0.82)    
Kirat 58 29 (50.1) 0.93 (0.45 to 1.92)    
Christian 51 22 (43.4) 0.71 (0.37 to 1.36)    
Women’s smoking status     <0.001   0.036
Smokers 511 133 (26.1) 1 (Referent category)   1 (Referent category)  
Non-smokers 3638 1945 (53.5) 3.26 (2.43 to 4.38)   1.40 (1.02 to 1.92)  
Whether women participated in at least one of the three decisions regarding their own health care, major household purchases and visit to their family or relatives     0.005   0.005
No 2473 1134 (45.9) 1 (Referent category)   1 (Referent category)  
Yes 1675 943 (56.3) 1.52 (1.27 to 1.82)   1.32 (1.09 to 1.60)  
Whether women were exposed to any of the three general media (radio, television or newspaper/magazines) at least once a week     0.008 - -
No 1641 754 (46.0) 1 (Referent category)    
Yes 2507 1324 (52.8) 1.32 (1.08 to 1.61)    
Women’s parity (Mean, SD) 2.6 2.1 (1.29)   <0.001   <.001
For each unit increase in live birth    0.65 (0.61 to 0.70)   0.78 (0.71 to 0.86)  
Whether pregnancy wanted at the time     0.001 - -
Wanted pregnancy 3017 1582 (52.4) 1 (Referent category)    
Unwanted pregnancy 1131 496 (43.8) 0.71 (0.58 to 0.86)    
History of previous pregnancies     0.011 - -
No complications in previous pregnancies 3484 1777 (51.0) 1 (Referent category)    
Complications in previous pregnancies 664 301 (45.3) 0.79 (0.67 to 0.95)    
Use of modern family planning     0.717 - -
No 2781 1385 (49.8) 1 (Referent category)    
Yes 1367 693 (50.7) 1.04 (0.86 to 1.25)    
Ecological zones of residence     0.179 - -
Terai 2174 1108 (50.9) 1 (Referent category)    
Hill 1669 840 (50.3) 0.98 (0.70 to 1.36)    
Mountain 306 130 (42.7) 0.72 (0.49 to 1.05)    
Residence     <0.001 - -
Rural 3730 1778 (47.7) 1 (Referent category)    
Urban 418 300 (71.8) 2.79 (2.13 to 3.65)    
Husband’s education     <0.001   0.010
No education 872 200 (23.0) 1 (Referent category)   1 (Referent category)  
Primary 984 395 (40.2) 2.26 (1.67 to 3.04)   1.55 (1.12 to 2.13)  
Secondary 1809 1104 (61.1) 5.26 (3.94 to 7.01)   1.81 (1.31 to 2.51)  
Tertiary 461 367 (79.7) 13.15 (8.89 to 19.45)   1.60 (0.98 to 2.61)  
Don’t know 22 10 (45.0) 2.75 (0.84 to 8.95)   2.54 (0.74 to 8.74)  
Husband’s occupation     <0.001   0.002
Agricultural (self-employed & employee) 1005 334 (33.2) 1 (Referent category)   1 (Referent category)  
Professional/technical/managerial 210 173 (82.3) 9.34 (5.88 to 14.84)   2.13 (1.27 to 3.58)  
Clerical 487 265 (54.4) 2.40 (1.59 to 3.63)   1.44 (0.96 to 2.14)  
Services 991 661 (66.7) 4.02 (3.12 to 5.18)   1.76 (1.29 to 2.39)  
Skilled manual 680 312 (45.9) 1.70 (1.34 to 2.18)   1.36 (1.02 to 1.82)  
Unskilled manual 635 266 (42.0) 1.45 (1.08 to 1.96)   1.47 (1.05 to 2.05)  
Other 140 67 (47.4) 1.81 (0.97 to 3.37)   0.83 (0.42 to 1.63)