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Table 2 Characteristics of 1565 mother-child pairs categorized according to alcohol consumption during pregnancy

From: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

  Alcohol consumption during pregnancy  
Variable None (n = 1356) < 1.0 g/day (n = 137) ≥ 1.0 g/day (n = 72) Pfor trenda
Age, years, mean 31.2 31.4 31.6 0.48
  Region of residence, %     0.78
  Fukuoka Prefecture 56.3 54.7 61.1  
  Other than Fukuoka Prefecture in Kyushu 33.5 38.0 29.2  
  Okinawa Prefecture 10.2 7.3 9.7  
Number of children, %     0.01
  0 39.8 36.5 34.7  
  1 41.2 38.0 31.9  
  ≥ 2 19.0 25.6 33.3  
Nuclear family structure, % 85.6 81.8 87.5 0.78
Maternal education, years, %     0.01
  < 13 22.4 21.2 38.9  
  13 - 14 33.6 31.4 33.3  
  ≥ 15 44.0 47.5 27.8  
Maternal employmentb, % 59.8 62.0 65.3 0.31
Body mass index, kg/m2, mean 21.3 21.8 21.9 0.02
Maternal smoking during pregnancy, %     < 0.0001
  None 92.3 89.1 73.6  
  First trimester only 4.1 5.8 11.1  
  Second and/or third trimesters but not throughout 1.6 1.5 5.6  
  Throughout 2.0 3.7 9.7  
Gestational age, weeks, mean 38.9 38.5 38.8 0.04
Male gender, % 49.0 43.1 52.8 0.85
  1. aFor continuous variables, a linear trend test was used; for categorical variables, a Mantel-Haenszel χ2-test was used.
  2. bFull-time or part-time employment in the year when the first questionnaire was conducted or in the previous year.