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Table 3 Bivariate analysis of the factors associated with recurrent exclusive psychological violence

From: Psychological violence against pregnant women in a prenatal care cohort: rates and associated factors in São Luís, Brazil

  Recurrent psychological violence
Variables n % PR* 95 CI** p***
Level 1       
Age range of the pregnant woman (years, n = 1.078)       0.136
  25 or more 612 30.3 1    
  14 to 19 125 32.8 1.08 0.82 1.42  
  20 to 24 341 36.6 1.21 1.01 1.45  
Age range of the partner (years, n = 878)       0.324
  25 or more 646 29.1 1    
  20 to 24 211 33.6 1.16 0.92 1.48  
  14 to 19 21 38.1 1.31 0.75 2.29  
Skin color of the pregnant woman (n = 1.022)       0.043
  Crossbred 691 30.1 1    
  Black 169 34.3 1.14 0.89 1.45  
  White 145 37.2 1.24 0.97 1.57  
  Yellow/Oriental 17 52.9 1.76 1.11 2.79  
Schooling of the pregnant woman (n = 1.078)       0.048
  Elementary 810 31.1 1    
  Middle 135 33.3 1.07 0.83 1.39  
  Higher 133 41.3 1.33 1.06 1.67  
Schooling of the partner (n = 862)       0.493
  Middle 637 28.8 1    
  Higher 73 31.5 1.09 0.76 1.56  
  Elementary 152 33.5 1.16 0.90 1.49  
Remunerated job of the pregnant woman (1.078)       0.714
  No 566 32.1 1    
  Yes 512 33.2 0.97 0.82 1.15  
Family income in minimum wages (n = 1,047)       0.380
  <1 40 27.5 1    
  1 to <3 604 30.9 1.12 0.67 1.89  
  3 to <5 252 35.3 1.28 0.75 1.18  
  ≥5 151 36.4 1.32 0.77 2.29  
Brazilian economic class (n = 1.028)       0.071
  C 692 30.2 1    
  D/E 159 36.4 1.21 0.95 1.52  
  A/B 177 37.8 1.25 1.01 1.56  
Who is the family head (n = 1.075)       0.152
  Partner 655 30.5 1    
  Pregnant woman 109 33.9 1.11 0.83 1.48  
  Others 311 36.6 1.20 0.99 1.44  
Difference in schooling (n = 862)       0.137
  Pregnant woman < residing intimate partner 83 22.8 1    
  No difference 604 29.4 1.29 0.85 1.95  
  Pregnant woman > residing intimate partner 175 34.8 1.52 0.97 2.37  
Difference in occupation (n = 868)       0.150
  Pregnant woman < residing intimate partner 160 23.7 1    
  No difference 565 31.8 1.34 0.99 1.82  
  Pregnant woman > residing intimate partner 143 32.1 1.35 0.94 1.95  
Level 2       
Material dimension of social support <75th percentile (n = 1,078)       0.001
  No 327 24.1 1    
  Yes 751 36.3 1.50 1.21 1.86  
Affective dimension/positive social interaction of social support <75th percentile (n = 1,078)       0.001
  No 311 23.1 1    
  Yes 767 36.5 1.58 1.26 1.97  
Emotional dimension/social support information <75th percentile (n = 1,078)       0.001
  No 294 23.1 1    
  Yes 784 36.2 1.57 1.25 1.968  
Level 3       
Smoking during pregnancy (n = 1,078)       0.006
  No 1045 32.0 1    
  Yes 33 51.5 1.60 1.141 2.26  
Use of illicit drugs up to 3 months before the current pregnancy (n = 1.078)       0.018
  No 1063 32.4 1    
  Yes 12 58.3 1.79 1.10 2.92  
Alcohol abuse by the pregnant woman during pregnancy (n = 1,076)       0.008
  No 980 31.5 1    
  Yes 96 43.7 1.39 1.09 1.77  
Number of sex partners (n = 1,067)       0.002
  1 330 29.0 1    
  2 to 5 632 31.8 1.09 0.89 1.34  
  6 or more 105 45.7 1.57 1.20 2.05  
  1. * Prevalence Ratio.
  2. ** 95% Confidence Interval.
  3. ***P-value obtained by the likelihood ratio test based on the Poisson regression model.
  4. São Luís-Brazil, 2010/2011.