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Table 4 Crude and adjusted odds of preterm birth (spontaneous and provider-initiated) associated with maternal morbidities, by region and globally

From: Maternal morbidity and preterm birth in 22 low- and middle-income countries: a secondary analysis of the WHO Global Survey dataset

   Spontaneous preterm birth (spPTB) Provider-initiated preterm birth (piPTB)
  OR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Latin America Maternal height     
<145 cm 1.15 (0.92 – 1.42) 1.05 (0.85 – 1.28) 0.99 (0.72 – 1.36) 1.15 (0.85 – 1.57)
145 – 149.9 cm 1.08 (0.95 – 1.23) 1.06 (0.93 – 1.20) 0.92 (0.76 – 1.11) 0.99 (0.82 – 1.20)
150 – 154.9 cm 1.10 (1.01 – 1.19) 1.06 (0.96 – 1.17) 0.93 (0.82 – 1.05) 0.99 (0.86 – 1.13)
> = 155 cm Ref Ref Ref Ref
Pyelonephritis/UTI 1.07 (0.97 – 1.18) 1.20 (1.01 – 1.42)* 1.08 (0.94 – 1.23) 1.27 (0.96 – 1.67)
Diabetes 1.34 (0.93 – 1.92) 1.72 (1.15 – 2.58)* 3.47 (2.48 – 4.85) 2.23 (1.48 – 3.38)*
Pre-eclampsia 1.38 (1.18 – 1.62) 1.18 (0.92 – 1.53) 7.80 (6.90 – 8.83) 7.43 (5.69 – 9.69)
Africa Maternal height     
<145 cm 2.02 (1.44 – 2.83) 1.46 (0.81 – 2.62) 1.91 (0.78 – 4.67) 1.21 (0.75 – 1.96)
145 – 149.9 cm 1.22 (0.93 – 1.62) 0.91 (0.72 – 1.16) 1.73 (0.94 – 3.19) 1.13 (0.80 – 1.58)
150 – 154.9 cm 1.51 (1.33 – 1.72) 1.22 (1.04 – 1.43)* 1.33 (0.93 – 1.89) 1.05 (0.92 – 1.19)
> = 155 cm Ref Ref Ref Ref
Malaria 2.00 (1.72 – 2.33) 1.67 (1.32 – 2.11)* 1.06 (0.64 – 1.76) 1.01 (0.84 – 1.21)
HIV/AIDS 1.10 (0.78 – 1.54) 1.17 (0.79 – 1.73) 1.61 (0.75 – 3.42) 1.09 (0.86 – 1.40)
Pyelonephritis/UTI 0.91 (0.73 – 1.13) 0.91 (0.66 – 1.24) 0.44 (0.20 – 0.99) 0.91 (0.81 – 1.02)
Diabetes 1.76 (1.06 – 2.92) 1.96 (1.03 – 3.71)* 4.71 (2.06 – 10.75) 1.66 (1.09 – 2.55)*
Pre-eclampsia 1.40 (1.02 – 1.93) 1.55 (1.11 – 2.17)* 13.57 (9.74 – 18.91) 3.59 (2.02 – 6.40)*
Asia Maternal height     
<145 cm 2.12 (1.88 – 2.41) 1.39 (1.13 – 1.71)* 1.94 (1.56 – 2.41) 1.58 (1.26 – 1.98)*
145 – 149.9 cm 1.60 (1.46 – 1.76) 1.21 (1.08 – 1.36)* 1.48 (1.26 – 1.73) 1.25 (1.02 – 1.53)*
150 – 154.9 cm 1.54 (1.45 – 1.64) 1.13 (1.01 – 1.26)* 1.18 (1.05 – 1.32) 1.11 (0.97 – 1.27)
> = 155 cm Ref Ref Ref Ref
Pyelonephritis/UTI 1.53 (1.21 – 1.95) 1.17 (0.78 – 1.77) 1.25 (0.78 – 2.01) 1.30 (0.68 – 2.49)
Diabetes 0.82 (0.60 – 1.12) 1.15 (0.82 – 1.62) 3.83 (2.91 – 5.06) 2.58 (1.59 – 4.19)*
Pre-eclampsia 1.64 (1.39 – 1.94) 1.26 (1.00 – 1.59)* 7.69 (6.56 – 9.02) 8.34 (6.54 – 10.64)*
Global Maternal height     
<145 cm 1.77 (1.60 – 1.96) 1.30 (1.10 – 1.52)* 1.65 (1.39 – 1.97) 1.47 (1.23 – 1.77)*
145 – 149.9 cm 1.36 (1.27 – 1.46) 1.15 (1.06 – 1.24)* 1.35 (1.20 – 1.52) 1.18 (1.02 – 1.36)*
150 – 154.9 cm 1.38 (1.32 – 1.44) 1.11 (1.04 – 1.19)* 1.16 (1.07 – 1.26) 1.08 (0.98 – 1.19)
> = 155 cm Ref Ref Ref Ref
Pyelonephritis/UTI 0.93 (0.86 – 1.01) 1.16 (1.01 – 1.33)* 1.17 (1.03 – 1.32) 1.24 (0.96 – 1.59)
Diabetes 1.09 (0.88 – 1.35) 1.41 (1.09 – 1.82)* 3.86 (3.14 – 4.74) 2.51 (1.81 – 3.47)*
Pre-eclampsia 1.40 (1.26 – 1.55) 1.25 (1.05 – 1.49)* 8.47 (7.72 – 9.29) 8.17 (6.80 – 9.83)*
  1. *adjusted odds ratios that reached statistical significance (95% CI excludes 1).