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Table 3 Prevalence of preterm birth and maternal risk factors, by country

From: Maternal morbidity and preterm birth in 22 low- and middle-income countries: a secondary analysis of the WHO Global Survey dataset

  Africa Latin America Asia
  DR Congo Algeria Kenya Niger Nigeria Uganda Argentina Brazil Cuba Ecuador Mexico Nicaragua Paraguay Peru Cambodia China India Nepal Philippine Sri Lanka Thailand Vietnam
Number of liveborn singleton deliveries 3,239 10,493 2,415 1,225 1,433 11,739 4,916 1,890 10,149 8,481 18,316 5,002 2,624 12,803 5,064 8,740 17,199 7,440 8,971 14,037 8,926 7,439
Number of facilities 4 10 2 2 2 7 5 2 9 5 16 4 4 9 4 9 13 6 8 12 9 3
  N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Term births (> = 37 weeks)a 2,829 (87.3) 10,013 (95.4) 2,253 (93.3) 1,110 (90.6) 1,312 (91.6) 10,767 (91.7) 4,432 (90.2) 1,689 (89.4) 9,650 (95.1) 7,895 (93.1) 16,857 (92.0) 4,669 (93.3) 2,367 (90.2) 11,729 (91.6) 4,733 (93.5) 8,247 (94.4) 14,554 (85.0) 6,764 (90.9) 8,230 (91.7) 13,069 (93.1) 7,977 (89.6) 7,129 (95.8)
All preterm births (<37 weeks)a 410 (12.7) 480 (4.6) 162 (6.7) 115 (9.4) 121 (8.4) 972 (8.3) 484 (9.8) 201 (10.6) 499 (4.9) 586 (6.9) 1,459 (8.0) 333 (6.7) 257 (9.8) 1,074 (8.4) 331 (6.5) 493 (5.6) 2,565 (15.0) 676 (9.1) 741 (8.3) 968 (6.9) 929 (10.4) 310 (4.2)
Spontaneous preterm birthb 378 (92.2) 374 (77.9) 153 (94.4) 100 (87.0) 109 (90.1) 876 (90.1) 294 (60.7) 162 (80.6) 257 (51.5) 522 (89.1) 1,019 (69.8) 239 (71.8) 161 (62.6) 682 (63.5) 281 (84.9) 314 (63.7) 2,091 (81.5) 592 (87.6) 642 (86.6) 481 (49.7) 760 (81.8) 263 (84.8)
Provider-initiated preterm birthb 32 (7.8) 106 (22.1) 9 (5.6) 15 (13.0) 12 (9.9) 92 (9.5) 187 (38.6) 39 (19.4) 242 (48.5) 64 (10.9) 439 (30.1) 94 (28.2) 93 (36.2) 392 (36.5) 50 (15.1) 179 (36.3) 474 (18.5) 84 (12.4) 99 (13.4) 487 (50.3) 168 (18.1) 47 (15.2)
Preterm birth, labour status unknownb 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (0.4) 3 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0)
Medical indicated piPTBc 31 (96.9) 100 (94.3) 8 (88.9) 13 (86.7) 12 (100.0) 72 (78.3) 180 (96.3) 38 (97.4) 236 (97.5) 49 (76.6) 357 (81.3) 83 (88.3) 84 (90.3) 385 (98.2) 49 (98.0) 131 (73.2) 390 (82.3) 82 (97.6) 90 (90.9) 334 (68.6) 151 (89.9) 45 (95.7)
Not medically indicated piPTBc 1 (3.1) 1 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (6.7) 0 (0.0) 4 (4.3) 6 (3.2) 1 (2.6) 0 (0.0) 7 (10.9) 48 (10.9) 11 (11.7) 4 (4.3) 2 (0.5) 1 (2.0) 40 (22.3) 77 (16.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 116 (23.8) 11 (6.5) 2 (4.3)
Indication unknown, piPTBc 1 (3.1) 5 (4.7) 1 (11.1) 1 (6.7) 0 (0.0) 16 (17.4) 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 6 (2.5) 8 (12.5) 34 (7.7) 0 (0.0) 5 (5.4) 5 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 8 (4.5) 7 (1.5) 2 (2.4) 9 (9.1) 37 (7.6) 6 (3.6) 0 (0.0)
Maternal morbidities                       
Maternal heighta                       
<145 cm 22 (0.7) 17 (0.2) 24 (1.0) 5 (0.4) 120 (8.4) 154 (1.3) 48 (1.0) 15 (0.8) 110 (1.1) 355 (4.2) 401 (2.2) 202 (4.0) 31 (1.2) 491 (3.8) 128 (2.5) 35 (0.4) 721 (4.2) 722 (9.7) 384 (4.3) 772 (5.5) 129 (1.4) 56 (0.8)
145 - 149.9 cm 88 (2.7) 53 (0.5) 89 (3.7) 11 (0.9) 46 (3.2) 503 (4.3) 219 (4.5) 52 (2.8) 448 (4.4) 949 (11.2) 1,327 (7.2) 635 (12.7) 81 (3.1) 1,505 (11.8) 527 (10.4) 122 (1.4) 1,842 (10.8) 1,575 (21.2) 742 (8.3) 2,024 (14.4) 727 (8.1) 341 (4.6)
150 - 154.9 cm 407 (12.6) 693 (6.6) 271 (11.2) 56 (4.6) 255 (17.8) 1,832 (15.6) 848 (17.2) 218 (11.5) 1,686 (16.6) 2,548 (30.0) 4,867 (26.6) 1,769 (35.4) 424 (16.2) 3,776 (29.5) 1,678 (33.1) 1,171 (13.4) 8,667 (50.6) 3,801 (51.1) 2,719 (30.3) 4,569 (32.5) 2,274 (25.5) 2,313 (31.1)
> = 155 cm 2,669 (82.4) 9,686 (92.3) 1,209 (50.1) 1,153 (94.1) 805 (56.2) 8,271 (70.5) 3,141 (63.9) 758 (40.1) 7,905 (77.9) 4,152 (49.0) 10,612 (57.9) 2,396 (47.9) 1,876 (71.5) 6,099 (47.6) 2,644 (52.2) 7,403 (84.7) 5,848 (34.2) 1,334 (17.9) 3,935 (43.9) 6,589 (46.9) 5,663 (63.4) 4,728 (63.6)
Missing 53 (1.6) 44 (0.4) 822 (34.0) 0 (0.0) 207 (14.4) 979 (8.3) 660 (13.4) 847 (44.8) 0 (0.0) 477 (5.6) 1,109 (6.1) 0 (0.0) 212 (8.1) 932 (7.3) 87 (1.7) 9 (0.1) 41 (0.2) 8 (0.1) 1,191 (13.3) 83 (0.6) 133 (1.5) 1 (0.0)
Malariaa 413 (12.8) 13 (0.1) 10 (0.4) 350 (28.6) 207 (14.5) 854 (7.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 10 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.1) 2 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 37 (0.2) 2 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 1 (0.0)
HIV/AIDSa 43 (1.3) 19 (0.2) 16 (0.7) 3 (0.2) 12 (0.8) 415 (3.6) 39 (0.8) 21 (1.1) 49 (0.5) 28 (0.3) 80 (0.4) 20 (0.4) 3 (0.1) 36 (0.3) 42 (0.8) 17 (0.2) 57 (0.3) 7 (0.1) 19 (0.2) 11 (0.1) 111 (1.2) 57 (0.8)
Pyelonephritis/UTIa 234 (7.2) 267 (2.5) 65 (2.7) 34 (2.8) 1 (0.1) 912 (7.8) 216 (4.4) 243 (12.9) 487 (4.8) 2,390 (28.2) 3,715 (20.3) 266 (5.3) 53 (2.0) 2,602 (20.3) 2 (0.0) 6 (0.1) 84 (0.5) 5 (0.1) 499 (5.6) 86 (0.6) 15 (0.2) 37 (0.5)
Diabetesa 12 (0.4) 103 (1.0) 3 (0.1) 3 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 30 (0.3) 66 (1.3) 39 (2.1) 213 (2.1) 11 (0.1) 129 (0.7) 6 (0.1) 12 (0.5) 21 (0.2) 5 (0.1) 70 (0.8) 45 (0.3) 6 (0.1) 42 (0.5) 385 (2.7) 199 (2.2) 14 (0.2)
Pre-eclampsiaa 34 (1.0) 67 (0.6) 15 (0.6) 14 (1.1) 16 (1.1) 371 (3.2) 114 (2.3) 77 (4.1) 210 (2.1) 584 (6.9) 867 (4.7) 135 (2.7) 87 (3.4) 830 (6.5) 108 (2.1) 184 (2.1) 567 (3.3) 88 (1.2) 363 (4.0) 54 (0.4) 188 (2.1) 75 (1.0)
  1. aPercentage calculated using number of liveborn singleton deliveries in country X as denominator.
  2. bPercentage calculated using number of all preterm births in country X as denominator.
  3. cPercentage calculated using number of all provider-initiated preterm births in country X as denominator.