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Table 2 Global maternal and neonatal characteristics for spontaneous, provider-initiated preterm births and term births in liveborn singletons (N = 172,449)*

From: Maternal morbidity and preterm birth in 22 low- and middle-income countries: a secondary analysis of the WHO Global Survey dataset

  Spontaneous preterm (spPTB) N (%) Chi-square p valuea Provider-initiated preterm birth (piPTB) N (%) Chi-square p valueb Term N (%)
Total 10,750   3,404   158,295
Maternal age   <0.001   <0.001  
<18 679 (6.3)   111 (3.3)   6,677 (4.2)
18-35 9,295 (86.5)   2,820 (82.8)   139,333 (88.0)
>35 771 (7.2)   473 (13.9)   12,233 (7.7)
Missing 5 (0.0)   0 (0.0)   52 (0.0)
Years of education   <0.001   0.107  
0 1,168 (10.9)   191 (5.6)   8,684 (5.5)
1 to 4 764 (7.1)   163 (4.8)   8,457 (5.3)
5 to 9 4,419 (41.1)   1,252 (36.8)   60,726 (38.4)
> = 10 4,139 (38.5)   1,731 (50.9)   77,824 (49.2)
Missing 260 (2.4)   67 (2.0)   2,604 (1.6)
Married 9,425 (87.7) <0.001 3,053 (89.7) 0.708 141,701 (89.5)
Missing 16 (0.1)   5 (0.1)   186 (0.1)
Parity   <0.001   0.517  
Parity 0 4,950 (46.0)   1,476 (43.4)   70,192 (44.3)
Parity 1-2 4,421 (41.1)   1,530 (44.9)   6,999 (44.2)
Parity > = 3 1,352 (12.6)   394 (11.6)   17,912 (11.3)
Missing 27 (0.3)   4 (0.1)   192 (0.1)
Number of antenatal care visits   <0.001   <0.001  
0 1,023 (9.5)   226 (6.6)   6,425 (4.1)
1 to 3 3,691 (34.3)   717 (21.1)   33,780 (21.3)
4 or more 5,804 (54.0)   2,396 (70.4)   115,685 (73.1)
Missing 232 (2.2)   65 (1.9)   2,405 (1.5)
Maternal height   <0.001   <0.001  
<145 cm 446 (4.1)   141 (4.1)   4,355 (2.8)
145 – 149.9 cm 991 (9.2)   332 (9.8)   12,583 (7.9)
150 – 154.9 cm 3,375 (31.4)   967 (28.4)   42,497 (26.8)
> = 155 cm 5,299 (49.3)   1,798 (52.8)   91,722 (58.0)
Missing 639 (5.9)   166 (4.9)   7,088 (4.5)
Antenatal medical and obstetric conditions      
Malaria 225 (2.1) <0.001 18 (0.5) 0.003 1,669 (1.1)
HIV 79 (0.7) 0.182 31 (0.9) 0.042 995 (0.6)
Pyelonephritis/UTI 712 (6.6) 0.065 279 (8.2) 0.013 11,228 (7.1)
Diabetes 91 (0.8) 0.442 100 (2.9) <0.001 1,233 (0.8)
Pre-eclampsia 380 (3.5) <0.001 619 (18.2) <0.001 4,047 (2.6)
Mode of delivery   <0.001   <0.001  
Vaginal delivery 8,571 (79.7)   1,144 (33.6)   114,010 (72.0)
Caesarean section 2,178 (20.3)   2,260 (66.4)   44,281 (28.0)
Missing 1 (0.0)   0 (0.0)   4 (0.0)
Neonates      
Mean birth weight (SD) 2436.1 (630.5) <0.001c 2308.2 (659.8) <0.001 3154.4 (476.2)
Mean GA (SD) 34.4 (2.3) <0.001c 34.2 (2.4) <0.001 39.1 (1.2)
Female sex 5,181 (48.2) 0.240 1,623 (47.7) 0.197 77,225 (48.8)
Facility characteristics:      
Location      
Urban 9,746 (90.7) <0.001 3,269 (96.0) <0.001 14,887 (94.0)
Peri-urban 731 (6.8)   66 (1.9)   4,891 (3.1)
Rural 273 (2.5)   69 (2.0)   4,547 (2.9)
Level of facility      
Primary 347 (3.2) <0.001 19 (0.6) <0.001 3,471 (2.2)
Secondary 3,261 (30.3)   938 (27.6)   56,444 (35.7)
Tertiary 6,355 (59.1)   2,199 (64.6)   86,577 (54.7)
Other referral level 787 (7.3)   248 (7.3)   11,803 (7.5)
  1. *12 preterm deliveries with unknown labour status excluded from this table.
  2. aP value calculated by comparison between spontaneous preterm birth and term births only.
  3. bP value calculated by comparison between provider-initiated preterm birth and term births only.
  4. cStudents t-test used to calculated p-values for continuous variables birthweight and gestational age.